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Racial Disparities in the Outcomes of Communication on Medical Care Received Near Death External Web Site Policy

Mack, J. W., Paulk, M. E., Viswanath, K., & Prigerson, H. G. (2010). Racial disparities in the outcomes of communication on medical care received near death. Archives of Internal Medicine, 170(17), 1533-1540. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2010.322

Research published in the Archives of Internal Medicine found that Black patients with advanced and terminal cancer are less likely than White patients to have their wishes for end-of-life care honored, even with a similar likelihood of having discussed their preferences with their doctors. These findings reveal the possibility that Black patients receive inferior end-of-life care and the need for standards of care to be equal for all.

Keywords:    Research | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Culturally Competent Care: Some Examples of What Works External Web Site Policy

Commission on the Public's Health System. (2010). Culturally competent care: some examples of what works! Retrieved from http://www.cphsnyc.org/cphs/reports/august_2010-_culturally_competen/

"Culturally Competent Care: Some Examples of What Works!" was published by the Commission on the Public's Health System of New York City. The initiative surveyed 659 parents in 12 languages about their children's health and access to care and reveals many cultural and linguistic barriers in access to care for children. A Cultural Checklist was developed, incorporating these findings to be used to interviews and while touring provider sites.

Keywords:    Tools | Public Health | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act Of 2010: Advancing Health Equity for Racially and Ethnically Diverse Populations External Web Site Policy

Andrulis, D. P., Siddiqui, N. J., Purtle, J. P., & Duchon, L. (2010). Patient protection and affordable care act of 2010: advancing health equity for racially and ethnically diverse populations. Retrieved from Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies website: http://www.jointcenter.org/sites/default/files/upload/research/files/Patient%20Protection%20and%20Affordable%20Care%20Act.pdf

The Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies has published a report detailing the implications of 2010's healthcare reform on health equity. It states that recent healthcare reform legislation offers an unprecedented opportunity to improve health equity in the United States.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Race, culture may play role in Alzheimer's disease External Web Site Policy

Brophy Marcus, M. (2010, July 14). Race, culture may play role in Alzheimer's disease. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/

This article discusses research presented at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference. It examines the effect of racial and cultural differences on Alzheimer's patients' outcomes and the attitudes of their family members. The study finds that more culturally tailored resources could benefit African Americans, Latinos, and other minority groups.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Irvine's Hoag Hospital works to bridge cultural barriers External Web Site Policy

Reicher, M. (2010, September 8). Irvine's Hoag Hospital works to bridge cultural barriers. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2010/sep/08/local/la-me-hoag-hospital-20100908

This article details a California hospital's efforts to incorporate culturally competent practices into its services and system. Hoag Hospital in Irvine, CA, took many steps to adapt to its patients' cultural beliefs, traditions, and languages. These preparations include creating patient rooms arranged according to the principles of feng shui, serving steamed rice for breakfast, and using gestures such as presenting documents respectfully with two hands and speaking to patients with more formality.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

At Hospitals, New Methods With a Focus on Diversity External Web Site Policy

Santos, F. (2010, September 6) At hospitals, new methods with a focus on diversity. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

This New York Times article discusses the ways that hospitals nationwide are adopting practices intended to improve care for an increasingly diverse patient population beyond language access services. Making immigrant and minority individuals feel more at ease can translate into improved health outcomes according to health providers.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

How Well Do Doctors Know their Patients? Factors Affecting Physician Understanding of Patients External Web Site Policy

Street, R. L., & Haidet, P. (2010). How well do doctors know their patients? Factors affecting physician understanding of patients' health beliefs. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26(1), 21-27. doi: 10.1007/s11606-010-1453-3

This study examines the features of patient-centered care; specifically, a physician's understanding of his or her patients' health beliefs and values. The results indicate that physicians' perceptions of their patients' health beliefs differ significantly from patients' actual beliefs. This study indicates that strategies for increasing physicians' awareness of patients' health beliefs include implementing culturally appropriate patient activation programs.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Cancer study sees cultural factors in racial disparities External Web Site Policy

Avery, S. (2010, June 16). Cancer study sees cultural factors in racial disparities. The News & Observer. Retrieved from http://www.newsobserver.com/

The Journal of the American Medical Association has published a study from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill about the cultural factors present in the racial disparities of lung cancer. The scientists concluded that, despite a high likelihood of death, Black patients are much less inclined to have surgery for early stage lung cancer than White patients, often because of a communication gulf between them and their doctors.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Ending health disparities takes interdisciplinary approach External Web Site Policy

Lewis, C., & Stout, J. (2010). Toothache in US children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164, 1056-1063. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.206

In this message from the American Medical Association (AMA) president to all physicians, Dr. Rohack notes that an interdisciplinary approach to patient-centered care may help reduce health disparities by addressing challenges in communication such as low health literacy and medication mismanagement. He commits to helping guide the changes needed to ensure culturally competent patient care. When patients do not understand their medical conditions or what to do to control them, unnecessary healthcare costs only will increase, a situation he notes the AMA is committed to avoiding.

Keywords:    Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Future Directions for the National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports External Web Site Policy

Institute of Medicine. (2010). Future directions for the national healthcare quality and disparities reports. Retrieved from http://iom.edu/

The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released in Spring 2010 a report that discusses future directions for the AHRQ National Healthcare Quality Report (NHQR) and National Healthcare Disparities Report (NHDR). The IOM concludes that the NHQR and NHDR can be improved in ways that would make them more influential in promoting change in the healthcare system.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disease-Based | Quality Improvement | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health Disparities Calculator External Web Site Policy

Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results, National Cancer Institute. (2010). Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc) [Computer software]. Retrieved from http://seer.cancer.gov/

Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results at the National Cancer Institute has developed a Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc), which is a statistical software designed to generate multiple summary measures to evaluate and monitor health disparities.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health Disparities Education External Web Site Policy

Lypson, M. L., Bussey-Jones, J., Glick, S., Brown, A. F., & Jacobs, E. A. (2010). Health disparities education. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(2), 79-81. doi: 10.1007/s11606-010-1312-2

The Journal of General Internal Medicine dedicated its May 2010 supplement to health disparities education. This supplement focuses on approaches to teaching health disparities and health disparities curriculums for students. It contains 27 articles, including "Medical Students' Perceptions of Their Teachers' and Their Own Cultural Competency: Implications for Education" and "Beyond Knowledge, Toward Linguistic Competency: An Experiential Curriculum."

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance & Leadership | Profession-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

HHS Launches Oral Health Initiative

HHS Launches Oral Health Initiative. (2010, April 26). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/

In April 2010, Dr. Howard Koh (Assistant Secretary for Health, HHS) announced an initiative to expand oral health services, education, and research in America ("Oral Health Is Integral to Overall Health"). Through the initiative, the department is increasing support for access to oral healthcare and the delivery of services to underserved populations.

Keywords:    Policy | Government | Profession-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

National Healthcare Disparities Report

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. National Healthcare Disparities Report (AHRQ Publication No. 10-0004). Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr09/nhdr09.pdf

The AHRQ produced the 2009 NHDR. The NHDR tracks the healthcare system through quality measures and summarizes healthcare quality and access among various racial, ethnic, and income groups and other priority populations, such as children and older adults.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Government | Disease-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Organ Transplant Program 'mistrust' studied External Web Site Policy

Conte, A. (2010, May 2). Organ transplant program 'mistrust' studied. Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved from http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/

Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine have shown that patients who think healthcare providers discriminate against them take more time to get approved for kidney transplant surgery. Blacks are four times more likely than Whites to have kidney failure, but they are less than half as likely to receive transplants from living donors. The lead researcher notes that doctors should identify patients who perceive discrimination in order to help them navigate the process.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

American Journal of Public Health External Web Site Policy

American Public Health Association. (2010). American Journal of Public Health, 100(5). Retrieved from http://ajph.aphapublications.org/content/vol100/issue5/

The first issue of any major public health journal devoted to Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander populations, the May issue of the American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) explores an array of new research on both alarming disparities and significant successes in care.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Public Health | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Commentary: Linking Cultural Competence Training to Improved Health Outcomes: Perspectives From the Field. External Web Site Policy

Betancourt, J. R., & Green, A. R. (2010). Commentary: linking cultural competence training to improved health outcomes: perspectives from the field. Academic Medicine, 85(4), 583-585. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181d2b2f3

This article explores the impact cultural competency may have on health outcomes. Cultural competence training should be evaluated in a stepwise fashion by using the tools of health services research and the principles of quality improvement, and it should be held to the same standards as other educational interventions and activities.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance & Leadership | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient-and Family-Centered Care External Web Site Policy

The Joint Commission (2010). Topic Library Item: Advancing effective communication, cultural competence, and patient-and family-centered care. Retrieved from http://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/6/ARoadmapforHospitalsfinalversion727.pdf

The Joint Commission proposes accreditation requirements for hospitals. These standards aim to improve communication, cultural competence, and patient-centered care. The standards will be published in the 2011 Comprehensive Accreditation Manual for Hospitals (CAMH): The Official Handbook. Compliance with the patient-centered communication standards will be included in the accreditation decision no earlier than January 2012.

Keywords:    Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Communication | Quality Improvement | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Cultural competence in oncology: Where do we stand? External Web Site Policy

Surbone, A. (2010). Cultural competence in oncology: where do we stand? Annals of Oncology, 21(1), 3-5. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdp546

This article in Annals of Oncology discusses the importance and relevance of culturally competent services in oncology. The author emphasizes that cultural differences are a major determinant of unequal access to cancer care. She concludes that provider practice of cultural competence can improve the quality of care offered to all cancer patients and can also foster reciprocal understanding and tolerance in the patient-doctor-institution relationship.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Profession-Based | Disease-Based | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Racial/Ethnic Difference in Early-Life Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity External Web Site Policy

Taveras, E. M., Gillman, M. W., Kleinman, K., Rich-Edwards, J. W., & Rifas-Shiman, S. L. (2010). Racial/ethnic difference in early-life risk factors for childhood obesity. Pediatrics, 125(4), 686-695. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2100

A team of researchers in Boston set out to examine racial/ethnic differences in early-life risk factors for childhood obesity. The study finds that racial/ethnic differences in risk factors for obesity exist prenatally and in early childhood. Racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity may be determined by factors that operate at the earliest stages of life.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement External Web Site Policy

Institute of Medicine, Subcommittee on Standardized Collection of Race/Ethnicity Data for Healthcare Quality Improvement. (2009). Race, ethnicity, and language data: standardization for health care quality improvement. Retrieved from http://iom.edu/Reports/2009/RaceEthnicityData.aspx

In its 2009 report titled Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement, the IOM recommends that healthcare providers collect and assess comprehensive patient data on their cultural and linguistic needs. Having more precise quality metrics can assist in eliminating disparities in health and healthcare.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Quality Improvement | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Improving Patient-Provider Communication: Joint Commission Standards and Federal Laws External Web Site Policy

The Joint Commission (Producer). (2009). Improving Patient-Provider Communication: Joint Commission Standards and Federal Laws [Video]. Available from http://www.jointcommission.org/

"Improving Patient-Provider Communication" is a video created by the Joint Commission along with HHS and the Office for Civil Rights as part of their efforts to eliminate racial, ethnic, and language disparities in healthcare. The video educates healthcare providers in providing language access in healthcare organizations. Language access is critical in providing safe, quality patient care.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Eliminating Health Disparities: What Works? External Web Site Policy

Anderson, J. (2009, April to present). Eliminating health disparities: what works? Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants. Retrieved from http://www.jaapa.com/

"Eliminating Health Disparities: What Works?" is a series of articles in the Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants. Each month, the journal examines a pertinent topic within the field of health disparities and discusses tools that can help healthcare providers assess and eliminate health disparities in their practice. The column tackles issues such as bias and the role of race in health.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Protection of Racial/Ethnic Minority Populations During an Influenza Pandemic External Web Site Policy

Hutchins, S. S., Fiscella, K., Levine, R. S., Ompad, D. C., & McDonald, M. (2009). Protection of racial/ethnic minority populations during an influenza pandemic. American Journal of Public Health, 99(S2), S261-S270. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.161505

This study examines the disproportionate impact of an influenza pandemic on racial and ethnic minority populations. The research recommends that pandemic interventions implement culturally competent preparedness and response that address the specific needs of racial/ethnic minority populations as well as relevant, practical, and culturally and linguistically tailored communications.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Reducing Health Disparities Through a Culturally Centered Mentorship Program for Minority Faculty: The Southwest Addictions Research Group (SARG) Experience External Web Site Policy

Viets, V. L., Baca, C., Verney, S. P., Venner, K., Parker T., & Wallerstein, N. (2009). Reducing health disparities through a culturally centered mentorship program for minority faculty: the southwest addictions research group (SARG) experience. Academic Medicine, 84(8), 1118-1126. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181ad1cb1

This study examines the prospect of reducing health disparities through recruitment of minority faculty using a formal mentorship program. A Culturally Centered Mentorship Model was created that emphasizes culture, community service, and community-based participatory research to support the recruitment and advancement of ethnic minority faculty members in academia.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance & Leadership | Profession-Based | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Study: Many Say Disparities Genetic External Web Site Policy

Study: many say disparities genetic. (2009, October 20). United Press International. Retrieved from http://www.upi.com/Health_News/2009/10/20/Study-Many-say-racial-disparities-genetic/UPI-80281256018232/

A study published in the Social Science Quarterly indicates that a majority of Americans support strategies to reduce healthcare disparities that are caused by social and economic status but believe that racial and ethnic health disparities are genetic. The authors note that the general public's belief that racial disparities have a genetic foundation is troubling because people will resist strategies aimed at eliminating health disparities.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Multicultural Health Care: A Quality Improvement Guide

National Committee for Quality Assurance, & Lilly USA, LLC. (2011). Multicultural health care: a quality improvement guide. Retrieved from http://www.clashealth.org/

The National Committee for Quality Assurance and Lilly USA, LLC, have developed Multicultural Health Care: A Quality Improvement Guide, a free, online resource for healthcare professionals. The website helps those seeking to undertake quality improvement initiatives to improve culturally and linguistically appropriate services and to reduce disparities in care.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Profession-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

CSMS issues results of health disparities survey External Web Site Policy

CSMS issues results of health disparities survey. (2009, October 28). Connecticut State Medical Society. Retrieved from http://www.csms.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2415&Itemid=222

This article discusses the results of a survey conducted by the Connecticut State Medical Society (CSMS) about physicians' views on ways to reduce disparities in healthcare, including cultural competency training. The results indicate that Connecticut physicians believe they could provide better care to patients of minority communities if they had better access to training. As a result of these findings, CSMS has committed to providing cultural competency training to physicians to help eliminate healthcare disparities in Connecticut.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Profession-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Studying State Legislation of Cultural and Linguistic Competence External Web Site Policy

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2009). Studying state legislation of cultural and linguistic competence. Retrieved from http://www.rwjf.org/

The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) funded a study by the National Center for Cultural Competence at Georgetown University that assessed State efforts to integrate cultural competence into continuing education and licensure requirements for healthcare professionals. The study reveals characteristics common between those States with legislation and States with barriers to the passage of legislation, and the study offers several strategic planning ideas.

Keywords:    Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Non-Native English Speakers Face Numerous Linguistic, Cultural Barriers to Medical Care External Web Site Policy

California Healthline. (2009). Non-Native English Speakers Face Numerous Linguistic, Cultural Barriers to Medical Care [Audio report]. Retrieved from http://www.californiahealthline.org/

This is an audio report that discusses a study conducted at the University of California-Berkley. The study finds that many non-native English speakers encounter difficulties in communicating with their healthcare providers, which can lead to lower quality healthcare. The researchers interviewed several key experts, who recommend that policymakers address health access issues by investing in telemedicine-based interpretation services and by recruiting bilingual medical professionals.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Speaking the Same Language: Medical Providers Struggle to Communicate With Immigrant Patients External Web Site Policy

Barclay, E. (2009, April 21). Speaking the same language: medical providers struggle to communicate with immigrant patients. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/04/20/AR2009042002466_pf.html

This Washington Post article discusses the effect of the Washington area's high immigration rates on its healthcare providers and the quality of care offered to patients. The author describes the medical errors and discrimination that can result from inadequate language services, and she provides doctors' and patients' points of view.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

California's Emergency Preparedness Efforts for Culturally Diverse Communities: Status, Challenges and Directions for the Future External Web Site Policy

Andrulis, D., Siddiqui, N., & Purtle, J. (2009). California's emergency preparedness efforts for culturally diverse communities: status, challenges and directions for the future. Retrieved from Drexel University Center for Health Equality and HHS Office of Minority Health website: http://www.diversitypreparedness.org/

This report conducts a systematic assessment of emergency preparedness programs and initiatives for racially and ethnically diverse communities in California, examining barriers to care as well as opportunities for improvement. While this report focuses on the State of California, it provides a methodological framework that allows for similar assessments to be conducted at national, State, and local levels.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved External Web Site Policy

Brennan, V. M. (Ed.). (2009). Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. doi: 10.1353/hpu.0.0146

The May 2009 issue of the Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved offers a variety of articles that address issues of health disparities and access to care. It highlights medical education issues regarding obstacles and supports for different minority groups during the application process for medical school. It includes a section on immigrant health, which contains articles on a variety of racial and ethnic groups, including Chinese and Latinos.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health Information Technology: Addressing Health Disparity by Improving Quality, Increasing Access, and Developing Workforce External Web Site Policy

Custodio, R., Gard, A. M., & Graham, G. (2009). Health information technology: addressing health disparity by improving quality, increasing access, and developing workforce. Journal of Healthcare for the Poor and Underserved, 20(2), 301-307. doi: 10.1353/hpu.0.0146

This article discusses the role of health information technology (HIT) as a tool to assist in health reform. Through quality improvement, education and outreach, and workforce and training development, advances in HIT show strong potential to help the healthcare system reduce persistent racial and ethnic health disparities by delivering patient-centered, culturally competent care.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance & Leadership | Quality Improvement | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

2008 National Healthcare Quality & Disparities Reports

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2009). National healthcare quality report, 2008 (AHRQ Publication No. 09-0001). Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/qrdr08.htm

The AHRQ released 2008's NHQR and NHDR, which present findings on quality of and access to healthcare by measuring trends in effectiveness of care, patient safety, patient centeredness, and more.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

One Size Does Not Fit All: Meeting The Health Care Needs of Diverse Populations External Web Site Policy

Wilson-Stronks, A., Lee, K. K., Cordero, C. L., Kopp, A. L., & Galvez, E. (2008). One size does not fit all: meeting the health care needs of diverse populations. Retrieved from The Joint Commission website: http://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/6/HLCOneSizeFinal.pdf

This report provides insight into the ways in which hospitals meet diverse patient needs and reduce health disparities. It examines the challenge that healthcare organizations face when addressing cultural and language issues, and it provides a general framework for developing organizational cultural competence. The report stresses that each hospital is responsible for tailoring an approach to cultural competence that addresses its needs rather than relying on a "one size fits all" solution.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Profession-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health External Web Site Policy

Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (2008). Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Retrieved from the World Health Organization website: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241563703_eng.pdf

This is the final report by the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which set out to examine ways to achieve health equity around the world. The report determines that the problem of health disparities can be tackled by developing strategies to influence policies and organizations that affect entire societies. The Commission has succeeded in its goal to create a global movement to promote health equity by establishing partnerships with governments and global organizations. The Commission concludes that achieving health equity within a generation is achievable.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

National Consensus Statement on Integrating Racially and Ethnically Diverse Communities into Public Health Emergency Preparedness External Web Site Policy

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Office of Minority Health and Drexel University, Center for Health Equality National Consensus Panel on Emergency Preparedness and Cultural Diversity. (2008). National consensus statement on integrating racially and ethnically diverse communities into public health emergency preparedness. Retrieved from http://www.diversitypreparedness.org/SiteData/docs/National%20Consensus%20Statement%20%26%20Guiding%20Principles%20%26%20Panel%20List%20508/695132ab58eb36a7c2f67ba98d5a72ec/National%20Consensus%20Statement%20%26%20Guiding%20Principles%20%26%20Panel%20List%20508.pdf

This statement provides a framework for integrating racially and ethnically diverse communities into emergency preparedness. It was developed by the National Consensus Panel on Emergency Preparedness and Cultural Diversity, an initiative of the Drexel University School of Public Health's Center for Health Equality and the HHS Office of Minority Health.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Health Care: A Chartbook External Web Site Policy

Mead, H., Cartwright-Smith, L., Jones, K., Ramos, C., Woods, K., & Siegel, B. (2008). Racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. health care: a chartbook. Retrieved from the Commonwealth Fund website: http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/media/Files/Publications/Chartbook/2008/Mar/Racial%20and%20Ethnic%20Disparities%20in%20U%20S%20%20Health%20Care%20%20A%20Chartbook/Mead_racialethnicdisparities_chartbook_1111%20pdf.pdf

This chartbook provides a framework through which policymakers, teachers, researchers, and practitioners may understand health disparities and formulate solutions. The chartbook presents data regarding health disparities, including their nature and etiology, and seeks to provoke thought about why disparities exist and how they can be eliminated.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Educating Physicians to Provide Culturally Competent, Patient-Centered Care External Web Site Policy

Like, R. C., Barrett, T. J., & Moon, J. (2008, Summer). Educating physicians to provide culturally competent, patient-centered care. Perspectives: A View of Family Medicine in New Jersey, 7(2), 10-20. Retrieved from http://www.njafp.org/publications/archive

This article in a New Jersey family medicine publication discusses the history of, rationale for, and effects of the legislation in New Jersey enacted in March 2005 that requires all physicians to complete cultural competency training for re-licensure and mandates the inclusion of relevant curricular content in the State's medical schools. It also outlines the development of cultural competency in legislation throughout the country on both State and national levels.

Keywords:    Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health Disparities: Barriers to a Culture of Preparedness External Web Site Policy

Honore, R. L. (2008). Health Disparities: Barriers to a Culture of Preparedness. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 14(6), S5-S7. doi: 10.1097/01.PHH.0000338381.29071.d6

This article discusses the ways that inequalities in health and healthcare present a barrier to the United States' disaster preparedness and response activities. The article sets out to show that individuals, communities, the private sector, nonprofits, and all levels of government need to work together to reduce health inequalities to improve the Nation's level of preparedness and response to a crisis.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Physician Implicit Attitudes and Stereotypes About Race and Quality of Medical Care External Web Site Policy

Sabin, J. A., Rivara, F. P., & Greenwald, A. G. (2008). Physician implicit attitudes and stereotypes about race and quality of medical care. Medical Care, 46(7), 678-685. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e3181653d58

This study used a social psychological perspective to examine what effects healthcare providers' implicit attitudes about race have on healthcare and racial and ethnic healthcare disparities. The data indicate that most doctors in all racial and ethnic groups show an implicit preference of Whites over Blacks except for Black doctors, who show no preference for either race.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Journal of Public Health Management & Practice External Web Site Policy

Graham, G. N., Honore, P. A., & Beadle, M. (Eds.). (2008). Supplement 6. In Novick, L. F. (Journal Ed.) Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 14(6), S1-S87. Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/jphmp/pages/toc.aspx?year=2008&issue=11001

This supplemental issue of the Journal of Public Health Management & Practice is dedicated to health disparities. It contains articles on a wide variety of topics relating to health disparities and includes an editorial from Dr. Garth Graham, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Minority Health.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Integrating Immigrant Families in Emergency Response, Relief and Rebuilding Efforts External Web Site Policy

Wang, T., & Yasui, L. (2008). Integrating immigrant families in emergency response, relief and rebuilding efforts. The Annie E. Casey Foundation and Grantmakers Concerned with Immigrants and Refugees. Retrieved from the Grantmakers Concerned with Immigrants and Refugees website: http://www.gcir.org/system/files/Integrating%20Immigrant%20Families%20in%20Emergency%20Response%2C%20Relief%20and%20Rebuilding%20Efforts.pdf

This report examines the disparities faced by immigrants and limited-English-proficiency communities during times of disaster. It focuses on emergency management at the local level since, oftentimes, the local government is the first on the scene during a disaster event.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Roadmap to diversity: Key legal and educational policy foundations for medical schools External Web Site Policy

Coleman, A. L., Palmer, S. R., Winnick, S. Y., & Holland & Knight, L.L.P. (2008). Roadmap to diversity: key legal and educational policy foundations for medical schools. Association of American Medical Colleges. Retrieved from http://www.cossa.org/diversity/reports/Key_Legal_and_Policy_Foundations_for_Medical_Schools.pdf

This report, published by the Association of American Medical Colleges, seeks to provide hands-on guidance to medical schools that seek to improve diversity among their students, their missions, and their policies. The report is designed to guide all medical schools in their quest for increased diversity.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

The influence of physicians' demographic characteristics and their patients' demographic characteristics on physician practice: Implications for education and research External Web Site Policy

Berger, J. T. "The influence of physicians' demographic characteristics and their patients' demographic characteristics on physician practice: Implications for education and research." Academic Medicine, 83.1 (2008): 100-105.

Demographic differences, specifically race, gender, and religion, have been shown to affect the diagnosis, type of treatment, and prevention methods provided to patients. This study from Academic Medicine highlights the necessity of cultural self-awareness and individualized patient care.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Viewpoint: Physician, know thyself: The professional cultural of medicine as a framework for teaching cultural competence External Web Site Policy

Boutin-Foster, C., Foster, J. C., & Konopasek, L. (2008). Viewpoint: physician, know thyself: the professional cultural of medicine as a framework for teaching cultural competence. Academic Medicine, 83(1), 106-111. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e31815c6753

Medical schools are emphasizing the importance of cultural competency education, but its emphasis is often overshadowed by a number of challenges, which are addressed in this article. The article discusses several curricula changes for teaching cultural competence to physicians that will assist medical professionals in becoming more adequate in providing care to culturally and linguistically diverse populations.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Profession-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Demographics and Health Care Access and Utilization of Limited-English-Proficient and English-Proficient Hispanics

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2008). Research findings #28: demographics and health care access and utilization of limited-English-proficient and English-proficient Hispanics. Retrieved from http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb/data_files/publications/rf28/rf28.pdf

Using data from the 2004 Household Component of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, researchers examined the use and access of healthcare among Hispanic adults with limited English proficiency as well as English-proficient Hispanic adults. In comparison to English-proficient Hispanic adults, it was found that limited-English-proficiency Hispanic adults are more likely to be less educated, have a lower income, be unemployed, be without private insurance or uninsured, use health services less often, and have a lower satisfaction rate with the healthcare they receive.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Race, medical researcher distrust, perceived harm, and willingness to participate in cardiovascular prevention trials External Web Site Policy

Braunstein, J. B., Sherber, N. S., Schulman, S. P., Ding, E. L., & Powe, N. R. (2008). Race, medical researcher distrust, perceived harm, and willingness to participate in cardiovascular prevention trials. Medicine 87(1), 1-9. doi: 10.1097/MD.0b013e3181625d78

Using a tool called the Medical Researcher Distrust Index, researchers examined individuals' perceived risk of engaging in medical research, specifically in cardiovascular clinical trials. This study presents medical professionals and researchers with a number of intervention approaches that may help alleviate racial and ethnic disparities in research methodology.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Public health preparedness: Mobilizing state by state

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response. (2008). Public health preparedness: mobilizing state by state. A CDC report on the public health emergency preparedness cooperating agreement. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/

The report details the progress of States in preparedness and response issues. This report is intended to serve as a first step in detailing collaboration efforts in preparedness between local, State, and Federal governments. National and State-specific data are presented for all 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Public Health | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

National Resource Center External Web Site Policy

Drexel University School of Public Health's Center for Public Health Readiness & Communication, & U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Office of Minority Health. National resource center on advancing emergency preparedness for culturally diverse communities. (2011, June 10). Retrieved from http://www.diversitypreparedness.org/

The National Resource Center is a database of resources on the public health preparedness needs of diverse communities. The National Resource Center aims to serve as a clearinghouse for those stakeholders who are working to eliminate disparities among minority communities before, during, and following disasters.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Education & Training | Public Health | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health Disparities Report 2008: A County-Level Look at Health Outcomes for Minorities in Georgia

Georgia Department of Community Health Office of Health Improvement and Minority Health Advisory Council. (2008). Health disparities report 2008: a county-level look at health outcomes for minorities in Georgia. Retrieved from http://dch.georgia.gov/vgn/images/portal/cit_1210/5/49/111684019Georgia_Health_Equity_Initiative_
Health_Disparities_Report_2008.pdf

The Georgia Health Disparities Report examines minority health outcomes in each of the counties throughout the State of Georgia. The findings illustrate the need for additional collaborative efforts to truly reduce disparities in health in Georgia. One of the goals of the report is to illustrate what practices are working in certain counties so that others may adapt them to fit in their own counties.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Population-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Racial disparities in cancer therapy External Web Site Policy

Gross, C. P., Smith, B. D., Wolf, E., & Andersen, M. (2008). Racial disparities in cancer therapy. Cancer, 112(4), 900-908. doi: 10.1002/cncr.23228

This study, published by the American Cancer Society, analyzes whether racial disparities in cancer therapy received by Medicare beneficiaries had been reduced between the early 1990s and 2002 as a result of the increase of disparities reduction initiatives. The study shows no noticeable decrease in racial disparities between 1992 and 2002.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Community variation: Disparities in health care quality between Asian and white Medicare beneficiaries External Web Site Policy

Moy, E., Greenberg, L. G., & Borsky, A. E. "Community variation: Disparities in health care quality between Asian and white Medicare beneficiaries." Health Affairs 27.2 (2008): 538-549.

This study focused on disparities in quality of health care received between Asian and white Medicare recipients. The researchers found that, overall, Asian Medicare beneficiaries were less likely than whites to receive any of the services examined.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disease-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Summary of state law requirements addressing language needs in health care External Web Site Policy

Perkins, J., & Youdelman, M. (2008). Summary of state law requirements addressing language needs in health care. Retrieved from the National Health Law Program website: http://www.healthlaw.org/images/stories/issues/nhelp.lep.state.law.chart.final.0319.pdf

The National Health Law Program published a report detailing all existing State law requirements relating to language access needs in healthcare settings. Each State's data are presented in a unique chart with citation to the legislation, a brief description, and coding that indicates the subject matter being addressed.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Communication | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Evaluating interventions to reduce health care disparities: An RWJF program External Web Site Policy

Schlotthauer, A. E., Badler, A., Cook, S. C., Perez, D. J., & Chin, M. H. (2008). Evaluating interventions to reduce health care disparities: An RWJF program. Health Affairs 27(2), 568-573. Retrieved from http://www.rwjf.org/

The RWJF's Finding Answers Program provides funding for programs seeking to reduce and eliminate healthcare disparities. This article, published in the March/April 2008 issue of Health Affairs, provides an overview of some of the current interventions that have the potential to reduce or eliminate health disparities in real-world applications.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Primary-care clinician perceptions of racial disparities in diabetes care External Web Site Policy

Sequist, T. D., Ayanian, J. Z., Marshall, R., Fitzmaurice, G. M., & Safran, D. G. (2008). Primary-care clinician perceptions of racial disparities in diabetes care. Journal of General Internal Medicine 23(5), 678-684. doi: 10.1007/s11606-008-0510-7

This study analyzes racial disparities within the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. The findings from this study indicate the need to incorporate strategies such as clinical education about healthcare disparities to improve the treatment of minority patients and to help eliminate healthcare disparities among many racial and ethnic minorities.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health care in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: Health care in New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina External Web Site Policy

Shartzer, A. (Author), & kaiserEDU.org (Producer). (2008). Health care in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: Health care in New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina [Video tutorial]. Retrieved from http://www.kaiseredu.org/tutorials/katrina/player.html

This is a narrated tutorial from the Kaiser Family Foundation that discusses the state of healthcare in New Orleans both before Hurricane Katrina and following it. Much of the information presented discusses the effect that Katrina had on low income individuals, many of whom are minorities.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Population-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Identifying and Evaluating Equity Provisions in State Health Care Reform External Web Site Policy

Smedley, B., Alvarez, B., Panares, R., Fish-Parcham, C., & Adland, S. (2008). Identifying and evaluating equity provisions in state health care reform (Volume 90). Retrieved from The Commonwealth Fund website: http://www.commonwealthfund.org/

This report examines barriers to healthcare primarily among racial and ethnic minorities, immigrants, and those who are limited English proficient through the lens of insurance and State-level policies and reforms. The report evaluates existing or proposed policies in five States-Massachusetts, Washington, California, Illinois, and Pennsylvania. It also identifies existing State-level policies for equal access to care.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Communication | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Ready or not? Protecting the public's health from diseases, disasters, and bioterrorism, 2010 External Web Site Policy

Trust for America's Health, & The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2010). Ready or not 2010: protecting the public's health from diseases, disasters, and bioterrorism. Retrieved from the Trust for America's Health website: http://www.healthyamericans.org/assets/files/TFAH2010ReadyorNot%20FINAL.pdf

Since 2003, Trust for America's Health has been measuring the Nation's emergency health preparedness efforts to evaluate what is being done at the Federal, State, and local levels. This eighth annual Ready or Not? report regarding the United States' level of preparedness for disasters, bioterrorism threats, and disease epidemics indicates that, while important progress has been made in the Nation's public health preparedness, efforts need to continue, and much remains to be done.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

The medical tongue: U.S. laws and policies on language access. External Web Site Policy

Youdelman, M. (2008). The medical tongue: U.S. laws and policies on language access. Health Affairs, 27(2), 424-433. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.27.2.424

Despite many Federal- and State-level laws regarding language access services, language barriers in healthcare are still prevalent for many individuals with limited English proficiency. The existing laws are not always sufficiently implemented or enforced. This article examines the current legislation and makes suggestions for improving language access for limited-English-proficiency individuals through a variety of lenses, including implementation and enforcement, funding, education, interpreters and translators, and accountability.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Public Health | Government | Communication | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Creating Equity Reports: A Guide for Hospitals. Boston, MA External Web Site Policy

Weinick, R. M., Flaherty, K., & Bristol, S. J. (2008). Creating Equity Reports: A Guide for Hospitals. Retrieved from The Disparities Solutions Center, Massachusetts General Hospital website: http://www2.massgeneral.org/disparitiessolutions/z_files/Disparities%20Hospital%20guide.qxp.pdf

The findings in this report indicate that although many hospitals collect information about their patients' demographics, race, and ethnicity, they often do not make use of the information. This resource is a guide designed to assist hospitals in using that information to develop an equity report.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Profession-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Health Literacy | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

DiversityRx: Improving Health Care in a Diverse World External Web Site Policy

TIDES. (2011). Diversity Rx: Improving Health Care in a Diverse World. Retrieved from http://diversityrx.org/

DiversityRx informs, educates, and supports healthcare providers, policymakers, researchers, and advocates who work to improve quality of care for minority, immigrant, and indigenous communities.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Patients & Consumers | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Cultural Competence in Health Education and Health Promotion External Web Site Policy

Perez, M. A., & Luquis, R. (Eds.). (2008). Cultural competence in health education and health promotion. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, & the American Association for Health Education.

This book describes essential theories, models, and practices for working with race, ethnicity, gender, and social issues.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Education & Training | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

In the Nation's Compelling Interest: Ensuring Diversity in the Health Care Workforce External Web Site Policy

Institute of Medicine, Committee on Institutional and Policy-Level Strategies for Increasing the Diversity of the U.S. Healthcare Workforce. (2004). In the nation's compelling interest: ensuring diversity in the health care workforce. Retrieved from the National Academies Press website: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10885

The report examines institutional- and policy-level strategies to increase diversity among health professionals. The report assesses the potential benefits of greater diversity among health professionals and an assessment of strategies that may increase diversity in five areas.

Keywords:    Policy | Governance & Leadership | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Culture, Illness, and Care: Clinical Lessons from Anthropologic and Cross-Cultural Research External Web Site Policy

Kleinman, A., Eisenberg, L., & Good, B. (1978). Culture, illness, and care: clinical lessons from anthropologic and cross-cultural research. Annals of Internal Medicine, 88(2), 251-258. Abstract retrieved from http://www.annals.org/content/88/2/251.abstract

This landmark publication from 1978 explains that concepts derived from anthropologic and cross-cultural research may provide an alternative framework for identifying issues that require resolution. "The Eight Questions" in this article, an explanatory model of illness that is designed to elicit the patient's perspective of illness, is the foundation for the field of cultural and linguistic competency.

Keywords:    Research | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Guidance for Integrating Culturally Diverse Communities into Planning for and Responding to Emergencies: A Toolkit External Web Site Policy

Andrulis, D. P., Siddiqui, N. J., & Purtle, J. (2011). Guidance for integrating culturally diverse communities into planning for and responding to emergencies: a toolkit. Retrieved from the National Resource Center on Advancing Emergency Preparedness for Culturally Diverse Communities website: http://www.texashealthinstitute.org/files/OMHDiversityPreparednessToolkit.pdf

This toolkit from the Office of Minority Health assists agencies in working with diverse communities to address a broader set of priorities to improve health and quality of life that are central to effective emergency event strategies and actions. It offers recommendations, resources, and practical strategies for engaging and integrating culturally diverse communities across emergency planning and response actions.

Keywords:    Tools | Government | Public Health | Profession-Based | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

State Works to Improve Indian Health External Web Site Policy

Uken, C. (2011, January 8). State works to improve Indian health. The Billings Gazette. Retrieved from http://billingsgazette.com/news/state-and-regional/montana/article_efcf15bc-85d1-5af5-b396-eac182a2d146.html

This article details Montana's comprehensive efforts to address health disparities suffered by the State's American Indian population. Montana is implementing culturally competent services and partnering with tribal governments to improve the health of this population.

Keywords:    Population-Based | Policy | Profession-Based | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Quality Improvement | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

With Poem, Broaching the Topic of Death External Web Site Policy

Daitz, B. (2011, January 24). With poem, broaching the topic of death. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

This article presents an Arizona hospital's efforts to provide culturally and linguistically appropriate geriatric and end-of-life services to its American Indian population.

Keywords:    Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Multicultural HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis Service External Web Site Policy

A public site where people can access multilingual information on HIV and Hepatitis C.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Clinical & Mental Health | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disease-Based | Disparities | Education & Training | Government | Health Literacy | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Patients & Consumers | Policy | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Public Health | Quality Improvement | Research | Tools |

Holistic Honu Wellness Center - Bridging the Gap between Traditional Healing and Western Medicine External Web Site Policy

The Holistic Honu Wellness Center is a very small health and wellness center in Berkeley, California where they address the issue of Native Hawaiian health disparities by acting as a conduit between traditional healing practices and the western medical communities everyday. Their current program has been the development and execution of a culturally competent education curriculum designed to address health disparity issues within Native Hawaiian communities that consists of four distinct levels.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance & Leadership | Clinical & Mental Health | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disparities | Education & Training | Health Literacy | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Public Health | Quality Improvement | Research | Tools |

CCATHFieldTest.pdf (PDF - 123KB)

Overview of the Cultural Competency Assessment Tool for Hospitals (CCATH) - a survey designed to assess hospital's adherence to the CLAS standards. The development and testing of the CCATH was funded by U.S.Department of Health and Human Services' (DHHS) Office of Minority Health (OMH) and the Commonwealth Fund. Organizational assessments, such as the CCATH, provide a useful tool to evaluate the structures (policies, programs) and processes (practices, culture) for cultural competency. The CCATH was subject to extensive qualitative testing, including pilot testing, focus groups, and cognitive interviews (Hays et al. 2006).

Keywords:    Governance & Leadership | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Tools |

CCATHOverview.pdf (PDF - 45KB)

Survey of cultural competency activities in hospitals. Part of the Cultural Competency Assessment Tool for Hospitals (CCATH) - a survey designed to assess hospital's adherence to the CLAS standards. The development and testing of the CCATH was funded by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' (DHHS) Office of Minority Health (OMH) and the Commonwealth Fund. Organizational assessments, such as the CCATH, provide a useful tool to evaluate the structures (policies, programs) and processes (practices, culture) for cultural competency. The CCATH was subject to extensive qualitative testing, including pilot testing, focus groups, and cognitive interviews (Hays et al. 2006).

Keywords:    Governance & Leadership | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Tools |

NCQA Multicultural Healthcare Distinction fact sheet External Web Site Policy

A fact sheet describing how NCQA's Multicultural Healthcare Distinction program can help health care organizations meet Office of Minority Health CLAS standards.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Policy | Quality Improvement | Tools |

Therapist External Web Site Policy

NaturalTherapyForAll is a good resource to find a therapist, counsellor, psychotherapist, acupuncturist, hypnotherapist or therapy course information.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Clinical & Mental Health | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Native American Spirituality External Web Site Policy

An information Guide for Health Care providers, hospital staff and administrators, chaplains, school administrators, funeral directors and others regarding ceremonies, rights and obligations.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance & Leadership | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Education & Training | Government | Health Literacy | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Patients & Consumers | Policy | Quality Improvement |

Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competency, and Patient/Family-Centered Care for LGBT Community External Web Site Policy

This new field guide from The Joint Commission urges U.S. hospitals to create a more welcoming, safe and inclusive environment that contributes to improved health care quality for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients and their families. The guide, Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient-and Family-Centered Care for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Community: A Field Guide, was developed with support from The California Endowment.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance & Leadership | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disparities | Education & Training | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Patients & Consumers | Policy | Population-Based | Public Health | Quality Improvement | Research | Tools |

Hospitals, language, and culture: A snapshot of the nation External Web Site Policy

Wilson-Stronks, A., & Galvez, E. (2007). Hospitals, language, and culture: A snapshot of the nation. Retrieved from The Joint Commission website: http://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/6/hlc_paper.pdf

In this study of 60 hospitals from across the United States, the authors seek to determine the challenges facing hospitals providing services to culturally and linguistically diverse populations, how hospitals are addressing these challenges, and whether promising practices have emerged that could be used by others. Site visits and interviews focused on six research domains: leadership, quality improvement and data use, workforce, patient safety and provision of care, language services, and community engagement. Recommendations and observations are offered for each domain.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Governance & Leadership | Research |

Taking cultural competency from theory to action External Web Site Policy

Wu, E., & Martinez, M. (2006). Taking cultural competency from theory to action. (Commonwealth Fund Publication No. 964) Retrieved from http://www.commonwealthfund.org/usr_doc/Wu_takingcultcomptheoryaction_964.pdf

The authors interviewed leaders in the field of cultural competency. They offer recommendations for the implementation of cultural competency and find that six principles are fundamental to a successful effort: (1) community representation and feedback at all stages of implementation; (2) cultural competency integrated into all levels of the organization; (3) changes that are manageable, measurable, and sustainable; (4) a business case for policy implementation; (5) commitment from leadership; and (6) ongoing staff training.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Policy | Governance & Leadership |

Principles and recommended standards for cultural competence education of health care professionals External Web Site Policy

Gilbert, M. J. (Ed.). (2003). Principles and recommended standards for cultural competence education of health care professionals. Retrieved from http://www.diversityrx.org/resources/principles-and-recommended-standards-cultural-competence-education-health-care-professiona

This book offers guidance on the content, training methods, and qualifications and evaluation of teachers and trainers and was designed to accompany the National CLAS Standards.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Education & Training | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Legislation as intervention: A survey of cultural competence policy in health care

Graves, D. L., Like, R. C., Kelly, N., & Hohensee, A. (2007). Legislation as intervention: A survey of cultural competence policy in health care. Journal of Health Care Law and Policy, 10(2), 339-361. Retrieved from http://thecqc.org/uploads/Graves_et_al.pdf

The authors outline the development of cultural competence policy initiatives at the state, organizational, and federal levels. They conclude by noting that the success of policy efforts "will depend on the clarity of the specified criteria for success, the detail of the proposed plans, and the availability of financial support to develop and implement" the programs.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Policy | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Strategies for leadership: Does your hospital reflect the community it serves? Diversity and cultural proficiency assessment tool for leaders

Institute for Diversity in Health Management. (2004). Strategies for leadership: Does your hospital reflect the community it serves? Diversity and cultural proficiency assessment tool for leaders. Retrieved from http://www.aha.org/content/00-10/diversitytool.pdf

This assessment tool for hospital leaders is divided into four parts: an assessment checklist, "action steps" for raising awareness within the organization, case studies demonstrating successful diversity and cultural proficiency programs from hospitals of all sizes, and a bibliography.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Governance & Leadership |

The provider's guide to quality & culture External Web Site Policy

Management Sciences for Health. (n.d.). The provider's guide to quality & culture. Retrieved from http://erc.msh.org/mainpage.cfm?file=1.0.htm&module=provider&language=English

This website is devoted to fostering culturally competent health care services for ethnically diverse populations. Features include a short quality and culture quiz; audio clips of practitioners describing their experiences; statistics; references and book excerpts; guidelines for managed care plans; and information and advice on patient-provider interactions, patient adherence, nonverbal communication, health disparities, and common health problems of selected minority groups.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement |

Evaluation of a new cultural competency training program: CARE Columbus

McDougle, L., Ukockis, G., & Adamshick, L. (2010). Evaluation of a new cultural competency training program: CARE Columbus. Journal of the National Medical Association, 102(9), 756-760.

The authors report outcomes for the Cultural Awareness and Respect through Education Columbus training program developed at Ohio State University. On the basis of questionnaires administered to course participants, they find that the program appears to be effective in improving attitudes, knowledge, and skills. The authors also discuss possible worksite implementation barriers and the development of a business plan to improve outreach and create sustainability for CARE Columbus and similar training programs.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Education & Training | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Safe practices for better healthcare-2009 update: A consensus report External Web Site Policy

National Quality Forum. (2009). Safe practices for better healthcare-2009 update: A consensus report. Retrieved from http://www.qualityforum.org/Publications/2009/03/Safe_Practices_for_Better_Healthcare–2009_Update.aspx

The updated report includes a set of 34 safe practices, endorsed by the National Quality Forum, with suggested implementation approaches and supporting evidence. Safe Practice 7 says that patients and, as appropriate, families "should receive timely, transparent, and clear communication." Clear communication is addressed in depth in Chapter 5 of the full report. Chapter 9 addresses issues important in the provision of patient-centered care.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Public Health | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Hospital governing board assessment: a self-help guide

Powell, L., & Taylor, C. (2004). Hospital governing board assessment: a self-help guide. Boise, ID: Mountain States Group.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Policy |

Translation as a strategy for effective communication with patients and clients: A how-to guide External Web Site Policy

Downing, B., & Bogoslaw, L. (2003). Translation as a strategy for effective communication with patients and clients: A how-to guide. Retrieved from Hablamos Juntos website: http://www.hablamosjuntos.org/pdf_files/BruceDowningHow-To_Guide_FINAL.pdf

This concise document offers step-by-step guidance for those with responsibility for the written communication, across language barriers, of health care organizations to patients and clients. Topics covered include needs and resource assessment, prioritization of value considerations (e.g., need versus cost), whether to translate an existing document or create a new one, the responsibilities of the initiator and manager of translation, and jointly undertaken translation projects.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Education & Training | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Responding to the language challenge: Kaiser Permanente's approach

Meyers, K. Tang, G., & Fernandez, A. (2009). Responding to the language challenge: Kaiser Permanente's approach. The Permanente Journal, 13(3), 77-83. Retrieved from http://www.thepermanentejournal.org/files/Summer2009/language_challenge.pdf

The authors outline the history of Kaiser Permanente's efforts to develop linguistically and culturally appropriate care and services with the expectation that the lessons derived from an understanding of the approaches taken, the barriers encountered, and the decision-making processes and drivers may guide other health systems, policymakers, or insurers to implement appropriate and effective language services.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Public Health | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Asset-Based Community Development Institute External Web Site Policy

Asset-Based Community Development Institute. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.abcdinstitute.org/

The ABCD Institute, located at Northwestern University, is part of a movement that considers local assets to be the "building blocks of sustainable community development." The institute is involved in building community capacity by engaging with community groups, participating in workshops and training, and offering technical support. They conduct community-participatory research and publish their work for scholars in the community development field and as practical resources for community builders.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Research |

Diversity committees that make a difference External Web Site Policy

Association of the Bar of the City of New York. (n.d.). Diversity committees that make a difference. Retrieved from http://www.abcny.org/images/stories/pdfs/Diversity%20Committee%20Notes%20Article10_2004.pdf

This document addresses the importance of forming a diversity committee as a first step in launching any diversity initiative. The structure of the committee and the key issues on which it needs to focus are discussed. Stemming from a conference series on diversity in legal institutions, the insights in this paper are applicable to other types of organization.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Tools | Governance & Leadership |

Participatory program evaluation manual: Involving program stakeholders in the evaluation process External Web Site Policy

Aubel, J. (1999). Participatory program evaluation manual: Involving program stakeholders in the evaluation process. Retrieved from http://www.idrc.ca/uploads/user-S/10504133390Participatory_Program_Evaluation_Manual.pdf

Program stakeholders are individuals with a stake in the evaluation's outcome. They will be the ones who will make decisions or use information resulting from the evaluation. In a participatory approach, an evaluation coordinator will need to decide who the stakeholders are and how they should be represented and to work with them to define objectives and methodology, to collect information, and to develop conclusions and recommendations. The underlying assumptions are that "the evaluation will be better if the results reflect ... the subjective perspective of program implementers" as well as objective measures; that the stakeholders' involvement will help to ensure that appropriate issues are addressed; and that it will give them "a sense of ownership" of the results.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Quality Improvement |

An evaluation framework for community health programs

Baker, Q. E., Davis, D. A., Gallerani, R., Sanchez, V., Viadro, C., & The Center for the Advancement of Community Based Public Health. (2000). An evaluation framework for community health programs. Retrieved from http://www.doh.state.fl.us/COMPASS/documents/Community_Health_Programs_Eval.pdf

This document outlines an evaluation framework in which communities are seen as full partners and stakeholders in the process. The material is organized around six steps of program evaluation: (1) engage stakeholders, (2) describe the program, (3) focus the evaluation design, (4) gather and analyze evidence, (5) justify conclusions, and (6) ensure use and share lessons learned.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Quality Improvement |

Healthy people toolkit 2010: A field guide to health planning External Web Site Policy

Baker, S., Conrad, D., Bechamps, M., & Barry M. (2002). Healthy people toolkit 2010: A field guide to health planning. Retrieved from Public Health Foundation website: http://www.phf.org/resourcestools/Documents/HP2010Toolkit2002.pdf

This publication offers guidance, technical tools, and resources to help states, territories, and tribes develop and promote Healthy People 2010 plans. It could also serve as a resource for communities and other entities planning similar endeavors. It is built around seven "action areas" found to be the most common elements in health planning and improvement efforts: leadership and structure, resources, community partners, priorities and objectives, measurement, management, and communication.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Governance & Leadership | Public Health |

Strategies for improving minority healthcare quality

This outdated information has been archived and is available for reference purposes only. To access the archived document, please go to: http://archive.ahrq.gov/clinic/epcarch.htm. Beach, M. C., Cooper, L. A., Robinson, K. A., Price, E. G., Gary, T. L., Jenckes, M. W., ... Powe, N. R. (2004). Strategies for improving minority healthcare quality (Publication No. 04-E008-02). Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality website: http://www.ahrq.gov/downloads/pub/evidence/pdf/minqual/minqual.pdf

The authors analyzed articles, found during an extensive literature search, on initiatives intended to improve minority health care and targeting health care providers or organizations. Most of the studies targeted physicians and most concerned aspects of prevention. There seems to be excellent evidence that reminder systems improve care and fair evidence that screening services directed to minority patients can improve care. There is excellent evidence that educational interventions targeting providers improve provider knowledge and patient satisfaction, but evidence of their effects on health outcome was only fair due to lack of consistency in methodology and measurement among the original studies.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Government | Public Health |

Resident physicians' preparedness to provide cross-cultural care: Implications for clinical care and medical education policy External Web Site Policy

Betancourt, J. R., Weissman, J. S, Kim, M. K., Park, E., & Maina, A. W. (2007). Resident physicians' preparedness to provide cross-cultural care: Implications for clinical care and medical education policy. Retrieved from The Commonwealth Fund website: http://www.commonwealthfund.org/usr_doc/1026_Betancourt_resident_MDs_preparedness_provide_cross-cultural_care.pdf

Noting that some residents in their final year of training felt unprepared to care for patients whose cultural characteristics (which may include mistrust of the health care system or beliefs at odds with Western medicine) are very far from their own, the authors recommend integration of cross-cultural training into curricula, the training of faculty members, and mandatory formal evaluation of residents' cross-cultural communication skills.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Profession-Based | Policy | Public Health |

Cultural competence in mental health care: a review of model evaluations

Bhui, K., Warfa, N., Edonya, P., McKenzie, K., Bhugra, D. (2007). Cultural competence in mental health care: a review of model evaluations. BMC Health Services Research, 7, 15. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-7-15

A literature search of articles published in English since 1985 found only nine that met the criteria of (1) showing implementation of a cultural competence model of mental health care and (2) providing some evaluation data for a cultural competency model of service provision or training - or including an evaluation of adherence to a predefined model of cultural competence in mental health services. None of the studies investigated outcomes for or experiences of the service users. The authors of the present review conclude that there "is limited evidence on the effectiveness of cultural competency training and service delivery" and that further work is required.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Research |

Inventory for assessing the process of cultural competence among healthcare professionals-revised External Web Site Policy

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2002). Inventory for assessing the process of cultural competence among healthcare professionals-revised (IAPCC-R). Retrieved from http://www.transculturalcare.net/iapcc-r.htm

This pencil-and-paper self-assessment tool is designed to measure cultural competence among health care professionals, residents, and students. It uses a four-point Likert scale. There are 25 items. Completion time is 10 to 15 minutes. The IAPCC-R is copyrighted, and a fee is required for its use.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Tools |

CASAS External Web Site Policy

CASAS. (2011). Retrieved from https://www.casas.org

CASAS offers assessments of basic reading, mathematics, listening, speaking, and writing skills in contexts that the learners might be expected to encounter in everyday situations. An adult low-level literacy curriculum is available.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Tools | Education & Training |

Principles of community engagement

Clinical and Translational Science Awards Consortium, Community Engagement Key Function Committee Task Force on the Principles of Community Engagement. (2011). Principles of community engagement (2nd ed.) (NIH publication no. 11-7782). Retrieved from http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/communityengagement/pdf/PCE_Report_508_FINAL.pdf

This primer contains a review of concepts, models, and frameworks from the literature on community engagement; nine principles of community engagement that are grounded in that literature; case examples from the literature; a discussion of the practical management of organizational support; challenges to be faced in improving research in the field; the value of social networking; and program evaluation.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Quality Improvement |

Assuring healthcare quality: A healthcare equity blueprint External Web Site Policy

Cummings, L. C., Bennett, B. A., Boutwell, A. E., & Martinez, E. L. (2008). Assuring healthcare quality: A healthcare equity blueprint. Retrieved from http://www2.massgeneral.org/disparitiessolutions/z_files/Assuring%20Health%20Care%20Quality_Equity%20Blueprint.pdf

This work offers strategies hospitals might follow in designing and implementing interventions to address racial and ethnic disparities. Topics include community partnerships; governance and leadership; and evidence-based, culturally and linguistically appropriate care. Tools, guidance, and resources are also included on measurement and data collection.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Governance & Leadership | Public Health |

Culturally-appropriate dispute resolution techniques and the formal judicial system in Hawaii. A report to the State Justice Institute External Web Site Policy

Dator, J. (1991). Culturally-appropriate dispute resolution techniques and the formal judicial system in Hawaii. A report to the State Justice Institute. Retrieved from http://www.futures.hawaii.edu/publications/courts/CultAppropAD1991.pdf

The author reviews a project undertaken by the State Justice Institute and the Hawaii Center for Futures Studies on alternative dispute resolution techniques in the Pacific region and legal precedents for dispute-resolution autonomy for certain groups. The recommendation is made to the chief justice of the Hawaii Supreme Court to appoint a committee to advise him on "appropriate action to be taken in order to incorporate culturally appropriate dispute resolution techniques into the Hawaii Judicial system." The author makes several suggestions as to what the focus of the committee should be.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Policy | Government |

The Drucker Foundation self-assessment tool: Participant workbook External Web Site Policy

Drucker, P. (1998). The Drucker Foundation self-assessment tool: Participant workbook. Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass, Inc.

This workbook is a tool and step-by-step guide for a self-assessment process in nonprofit organizations with a social mission.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Tools | Quality Improvement |

Working on common cross-cultural communication challenges External Web Site Policy

DuPraw, M., & Axner, M. (2011). Working on common cross-cultural communication challenges. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/ampu/crosscult.html

The authors outline six fundamental patterns of cultural difference: communication styles, attitudes toward conflict, approaches to completing tasks, decision-making styles, attitudes toward disclosure, and approaches to knowledge. They conclude with the suggestion of several guidelines for multicultural collaboration.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Communication and Language Assistance | Tools |

Healthcare disparities at the crossroads with healthcare reform External Web Site Policy

Fiscella, K. (2011). Eliminating disparities in health care through quality improvement. In R. A. Williams (Ed.), Healthcare disparities at the crossroads with healthcare reform (pp. 231-267). New York, NY: Springer.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Disparities | Quality Improvement | Public Health |

Obtaining data on patient race, ethnicity, and primary language in health care organizations: Current challenges and proposed solutions

Hasnain-Wynia, R., & Baker, D. W. (2006). Obtaining data on patient race, ethnicity, and primary language in health care organizations: Current challenges and proposed solutions. Health Services Research, 41, 1501-1518. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2006.00552.x

The authors note the fragmentary nature of the data collected by health care organizations on patient race, ethnicity, and language and argue that a commitment to the systematic collection of such data would enhance the ability of health care organizations to monitor processes and outcomes for various groups, direct quality improvement efforts more efficiently and effectively, and provide patient-centered care.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Public Health |

Health research and educational trust disparities toolkit External Web Site Policy

Hasnain-Wynia, R., Pierce, D., Haque, A., Hedges Greising, C., Prince, V., & Reiter, J. (2007). Health research and educational trust disparities toolkit. Retrieved from http://www.hretdisparities.org/

This is a Web-based toolkit providing information and resources that will allow health care organizations to collect patient race, ethnicity, and primary language data in a systematic way. Included are sections on how to ask the questions, the use of the data, staff training, community engagement, and deaf and hard-of-hearing populations.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Disparities | Tools |

Barriers to collecting patient race, ethnicity and primary language data in physician practices: An exploratory study

Hasnain-Wynia, R., Van Dyke, K., Youdelman, M., Krautkramer, C., Ivey, S., Gilchick, R., ... & Wynia M. (2010). Barriers to collecting patient race, ethnicity and primary language data in physician practices: An exploratory study. Journal of the National Medical Association, 102(9), 769-775.

The authors conducted telephone interviews with representatives of 20 small practices (five or fewer physicians) nationwide. Nine practices reported collecting demographic data. One linked demographic data to quality. The single practice feature noted as facilitating the collection of demographic data was the use of an electronic medical records system. Pay-for-performance programs and cultural competency training did not have an effect on data collection. Perceived barriers included privacy concerns, uncertainty regarding the usefulness of the data, the legality of collecting the information, and possible patient and staff resistance.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Profession-Based | Policy | Public Health |

Tools to foster the collaboration with patient and family advisors External Web Site Policy

Institute for Patient- and Family-Centered Care. (2011) Tools to foster the collaboration with patient and family advisors. Retrieved from http://www.ipfcc.org/tools/downloads-tools.html

The tools include a checklist for attitudes about patients and families as advisers; a patient and family advisory council work plan; applying patient and family-centered concepts to bedside pediatric rounds; creating advisory councils; staff liaison coordination; tips for patients and families; tips on involving patients and families on committees and task forces; tips for recruiting patients and families to serve in advisory roles; and tips for how to be an effective patient or family adviser.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Patients & Consumers | Tools |

Culture, language, and patient safety: Making the link

Johnstone, M. J., & Kanitsaki, O. (2006). Culture, language, and patient safety: Making the link. International Journal of Quality in Health Care, 18(5), 383-388. Retrieved from http://intqhc.oxfordjournals.org/content/18/5/383.full.pdf

The authors suggest that failure to recognize the link between culture and language, on the one hand, and patient safety, on the other, exposes hospital patients from minority backgrounds to preventable adverse events. They also suggest that the vulnerabilities of these patients be "actively addressed in patient safety systems and processes."

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Patients & Consumers | Public Health |

Lahey Clinic Foundation External Web Site Policy

Lahey Clinic Foundation. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.lahey.org/

The website of this teaching hospital affiliated with Tufts University is notable for the extensive and multileveled list of informational and service links under the heading of patient and visitor information. These include the opportunity to request an interpreter for any of 30 languages; a patient bill of rights; social services that may include counseling for patients and family from social workers trained in cultural diversity; and, for visitors, a list of local lodging and restaurants. A Community Benefits Report is also available from the site.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Patients & Consumers | Communication and Language Assistance |

Mediation and multicultural reality External Web Site Policy

LeBaron, M. (1998). Mediation and multicultural reality. Retrieved from http://www.lahey.org/

The author examines a connection between mediation and multiculturalism in three ways: "(1) by summarizing implications of multiple cultures for the study and design of conflict resolution processes; (2) by examining communication frameworks for understanding cultural difference for their usefulness in advancing practice; and (3) by exploring how intercultural capacity can be built by third parties."

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Communication and Language Assistance | Governance & Leadership |

Guide for developing a community-based patient safety advisory council

Leonhardt, K., Bonin, D., & Pagel, P. (2008). Guide for developing a community-based patient safety advisory council (AHRQ Publication No. 08-0048). Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/advisorycouncil/advisorycouncil.pdf

This guide offers a 10-step approach to the creation of a patient safety advisory council. The intended audience is assumed to have a basic knowledge of patient safety and some awareness of logistics and meeting planning but without prior experience of including consumers and a wide array of perspectives in the discussions.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Government | Patients & Consumers | Public Health |

Conflict resolution: Resolving conflict rationally and effectively External Web Site Policy

Mind Tools. (n.d.). Conflict resolution: Resolving conflict rationally and effectively. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_81.htm

Effective conflict resolution can lead to increased understanding of complex situations, increased group cohesion, and improved self-knowledge of individuals' goals. Two theories of conflict resolution are discussed and a five-step conflict resolution process is presented. A four-minute video is included with the article.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Communication and Language Assistance |

Bridging the cultural divide in health care settings: The essential role of cultural broker programs External Web Site Policy

National Center for Cultural Competence. (2004). Bridging the cultural divide in health care settings: The essential role of cultural broker programs. Retrieved from http://gucchd.georgetown.edu/products/CulturalBrokerGuide_English.pdf

Cultural brokers "can bridge the gap between health care providers and the communities they serve." This guide discusses the role of cultural brokers; the benefits of cultural brokers to health care delivery systems; guiding principles for cultural broker programs in health care settings; the essential values, knowledge, skills, and awareness required of cultural brokers; and guidance in the implementation of a sustainable cultural broker program.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Communication and Language Assistance |

Cultural competence health practitioner assessment (CCHPA) External Web Site Policy

National Center for Cultural Competence. (n.d.). Cultural competence health practitioner assessment (CCHPA). Retrieved from http://nccc.georgetown.edu/features/CCHPA.html

The CCHPA is an online self-assessment tool. It has six subscales: values and belief systems, cultural aspects of epidemiology, clinical decision-making, life cycle events, cross-cultural communication, and empowerment/health management. The CCHPA has not been validated for use in research.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Tools | Communication and Language Assistance |

Recognizing innovations in multicultural health care External Web Site Policy

National Committee for Quality Assurance. (2011). Recognizing innovations in multicultural health care. Retrieved from http://www.ncqa.org/tabid/453/Default.aspx

This award program recognizes health plans "for their exemplary efforts and demonstrated effectiveness in promoting cultural competence and addressing the health care needs" of members who belong to cultural or linguistic minorities. It is hoped that the award program may identify models suitable for replication. Topic areas for applications are language access, cultural competence, reducing clinical disparities, community-driven programs or community partnerships, culturally and linguistically appropriate patient education, cross-cultural health initiatives, quality and culture intersection, and culturally tailored disease management.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Tools | Disparities |

National voluntary consensus standards for ambulatory care: Measuring healthcare disparities External Web Site Policy

National Quality Forum. (2008). National voluntary consensus standards for ambulatory care: Measuring healthcare disparities. Retrieved from http://www.qualityforum.org/Publications/2008/03/National_Voluntary_Consensus_Standards_for_Ambulatory_Care%E2%80%94Measuring_Healthcare_Disparities.aspx

This consensus report presents 36 disparities-sensitive standards addressing asthma, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, medication management, mental health and substance abuse, prenatal care, immunization, screening, prevention, and patient experience. The measures presented are appropriate for practitioner practices, large and small groups, and health plans and may be applied nationally or locally. Recommendations are offered for practitioners and researchers.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Disparities | Disease-Based |

Cultural competency 2010: Cultural competency measures and implementation strategies External Web Site Policy

National Quality Forum. (n.d.). Cultural competency 2010: Cultural competency measures and implementation strategies. Retrieved from http://www.qualityforum.org/Projects/c-d/Cultural_Competency_2010/Cultural_Competency_2010.aspx

Building on previous National Quality Forum work and guided by input from an expert panel of stakeholders, this project was intended to "identify next steps for cultural competency measures and concepts for the development of a cultural competency practice implementation measure." Implementation strategies and preferred practices were identified.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Tools | Governance & Leadership |

Getting the word out: Effective health outreach to cultural communities

Ohmans, P., & Cushing, M. (2000). Getting the word out: Effective health outreach to cultural communities. Retrieved from The Medtronic Foundation website: http://www.medtronic.com/downloadablefiles/outreach_brochure.pdf

Effective outreach depends on understanding the culture of the communities one is trying to reach. Getting the Word Out provides step-by-step guidance for health care organizations seeking to make their services known to people of other cultural communities in ways that are meaningful and appropriate to them. The steps covered in this short guide include learning about the community, assessing one's own organization, building relationships with the community, and planning and implementing a program. Each of these broad topics is fleshed out in some detail. Tips and techniques are offered.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Communication and Language Assistance | Tools |

Hospital language services: Quality improvement and performance measures External Web Site Policy

Regenstein, M., Huang, J., West, C., Mead, H., Trott, J., & Stegun, M. (2008). Hospital language services: Quality improvement and performance measures. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK43719/pdf/advances-regenstein_54.pdf

Hospitals belonging to the Speaking Together collaborative have developed and implemented performance measures for the delivery of language services. These hospitals "are poised to set benchmarks for hundreds of other hospitals that are struggling with the challenges of providing high-quality language services." The authors note that, for the first time, "hospitals are gathering information to estimate true demand for language services and to determine whether they are effectively meeting that demand."

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Communication and Language Assistance |

Promoting cultural competency in public administration and public service delivery: Utilizing self-assessment tools and performance measures External Web Site Policy

Rice, M. F. (2007). Promoting cultural competency in public administration and public service delivery: Utilizing self-assessment tools and performance measures. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 13(1), 41-57.

The author tenders a definition of cultural competency in public administration and public service delivery and puts forward performance measures and self-assessment tools to assist public agencies in becoming culturally competent.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Governance & Leadership | Policy |

How to choose and use a language agency: A guide for health and social service providers who wish to contract with language agencies External Web Site Policy

Roat, C. (2003). How to choose and use a language agency: A guide for health and social service providers who wish to contract with language agencies. Retrieved from The California Endowment website: http://www.calendow.org/uploadedFiles/how_to_choose_use_language_agency.pdf

This relatively short guide includes a great deal of information on the effective selection and use of language agencies, the questions to ask beforehand, and the monitoring of performance once an agency is in place. An extensive list of language agencies in California is provided.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Tools | Communication and Language Assistance |

Benchmarking patient complaints data across Ontario hospitals: University Health Network invites collaboration External Web Site Policy

Rogers, S., & Vilhena, B. (2005). Benchmarking patient complaints data across Ontario hospitals: University Health Network invites collaboration [Online case study]. Healthcare Quarterly. Retrieved from http://www.longwoods.com/product/download/code/17728

The authors observe that it is increasingly common for hospitals to designate some individuals to serve as "complaints departments" to respond to patient concerns and that many hospital improvements result from this source of information. While acknowledging the difficulties in the establishment of a scientifically rigorous methodology for comparing interhospital complaints data, they suggest that the time is ripe for provincewide benchmarking efforts.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Patients & Consumers | Public Health |

Cultural and linguistic competency policy External Web Site Policy

San Francisco Department of Public Health. (2002). Cultural and linguistic competency policy. Retrieved from http://www.sfdph.org/dph/comupg/aboutdph/insideDept/CLAS/CLASPolicies.asp

The National CLAS Standards were used as guidelines for the seven policies and associated procedures detailed in this document from the San Francisco Department of Public Health. The policies concern nondiscrimination in the provision of services, grievance procedures, cultural and linguistic competency reports, contracts for direct services to the public, program monitoring, and training.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Policy | Public Health |

Defining and measuring community benefit External Web Site Policy

Sandrick, K. (2006, October). Defining and measuring community benefit. Trustee, 59(9), 6-10. Retrieved from http://www.trusteemag.com/trusteemag_app/jsp/articledisplay.jsp?dcrpath=TRUSTEEMAG/PubsNewsArticleGen/data/2006October/0610TRU_CoverStory&domain=TRUSTEEMAG

In the face of threats to their tax-exempt status, not-for-profit hospitals must find consistent ways of identifying and tracking their benefits to the community. The author discusses legal requirements for community benefit, giving many examples. Documentation is discussed with reference to the Catholic Health Association's Guide for Planning and Reporting Community Benefit.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Policy | Public Health |

An introduction to effectiveness, dissemination and implementation research: A resource manual for community-engaged research External Web Site Policy

Schillinger, D. (2010). An introduction to effectiveness, dissemination and implementation research: A resource manual for community-engaged research. Retrieved from http://accelerate.ucsf.edu/files/CE/edi_introguide.pdf

This guide offers an introduction to the principles of effectiveness research, diffusion research, dissemination research, and implementation sciences. One of the author's purposes is to promote interest among members of the scientific community, medical practitioners, policymakers at the local, regional, and state levels, and community members in research that will help to close the gap between scientific discovery and integration of that new knowledge into institutional practice and policy. The author provides an extensive bibliography and a list of relevant Web resources.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Policy | Public Health |

Assets-oriented community assessment

Sharpe, P. A., Greaney, M. L., Lee, P. R., & Royce, S. W. (2000). Assets-oriented community assessment. Public Health Reports, 115(2-3), 205-211. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1308712/pdf/pubhealthrep00022-0103.pdf

The authors argue that, rather than a needs-based or problem-focused orientation to assessment, Healthy Communities initiatives are better served by an assets-oriented assessment approach.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Quality Improvement |

Toward culturally competent evaluation in health and mental health External Web Site Policy

Snowden, L. R. (2003). Toward culturally competent evaluation in health and mental health. Retrieved from The California Endowment website: http://www.calendow.org/uploadedFiles/Publications/Evaluation/toward_culturally_competent_evaluation.pdf

The focus of this paper is on the application of culturally competent evaluation methods to the research in and evaluation of culturally competent care. The author outlines four "domains of focus" according to which cultural competence might be assessed and, for each, poses specific research questions that might arise within it. Examples are provided of culturally responsive methods evaluators could use to address these questions.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Tools |

Building coalitions among communities of color: A multicultural approach

Summit Health Institute for Research and Education. (2004). Building coalitions among communities of color: A multicultural approach. Retrieved from http://www.shireinc.org/wp-content/files/Building_Coalitions_among_Communities_of_Color.pdf

The introduction notes that "[t]his guide is intended as a resource primarily for people of color, who are building coalitions in which representatives from communities of color predominate." It is structured around 10 strategies, and specific, practical steps within those strategies, to maximize their abilities as change agents by fostering skills in the areas of coalition building, strategic planning, intergroup relations, organizational development, and group maintenance and evaluation.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Policy | Tools |

"What did the doctor say?": Improving health literacy to protect patient safety External Web Site Policy

The Joint Commission. (2007). "What did the doctor say?": Improving health literacy to protect patient safety. Retrieved from http://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/18/improving_health_literacy.pdf

In an effort to narrow the "gap between the abilities of ordinary citizens, and especially those with low health literacy or low English proficiency, and the skills required to comprehend typical health care information," the Joint Commission convened a roundtable panel to address this issue. This document is structured around its three recommendations, with discussion and suggestions for implementation of each. The recommendations are to (1) make effective communications an organizational priority to protect the safety of patients, (2) incorporate strategies to address patients' communication needs across the continuum of care, and (3) pursue policy changes that promote improved practitioner-patient communications.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Health Literacy | Patients & Consumers |

Development and validation of a patient-reported measure of physician cultural competency External Web Site Policy

Thom, D. H., & Tirado, M. D. (2006). Development and validation of a patient-reported measure of physician cultural competency. Medical Care Research and Review, 63(5), 636-655. doi:10.1177/1077558706290946

The authors note that "the lack of a measure of cultural competency limits our ability to evaluate interventions and to understand the effects of cultural competency on health care quality." They report their efforts to construct and validate "a patient-reported measure of physician culturally competent communication behaviors."

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Profession-Based | Patients & Consumers |

The collaboration primer: Proven strategies, considerations, and tools to get you started External Web Site Policy

Torres, G. W., & Margolin, F. S. (2003). The collaboration primer: Proven strategies, considerations, and tools to get you started. Retrieved from Health Research and Educational Trust website: http://www.hret.org/upload/resources/collaboration-primer.pdf

Collaboration can offer a better alignment of resources with needs, reduce competition for resources, increase organizational effectiveness, and lead to sustainable results. The authors draw on the Health Research and Educational Trust's 10 years' experience in collaborative efforts. They encourage those contemplating collaboration to think about the degree to which they are willing to collaborate. They provide a checklist of issues to consider before embarking on collaboration. They offer examples of model collaboratives, nuts and bolts and organizational principles for successful collaboration, and an assessment tool to discover strengths and weaknesses.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Tools | Communication and Language Assistance |

Creating a culturally and politically appropriate dispute resolution model: Working in Indian country External Web Site Policy

Townsend, J. R. (2011, March). Creating a culturally and politically appropriate dispute resolution model: Working in Indian country. RCAC's Rural Review, 28(3), 1-7. Retrieved from http://www.rcac.org/assets/white-papers/CreatingACulturally.pdf

Many of the principles and practices employed in dispute resolution abroad may be adapted to work in Indian country, but other factors influencing the resolution of disputes are unique. The author, a member of the Muscogee Indian Nation, offers "several core concepts helpful to anyone working in Indian Country who wishes to create meaningful and culturally appropriate processes that result in culturally relevant and politically durable outcomes."

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Population-Based | Communication and Language Assistance |

American Factfinder

U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). American factfinder. Retrieved from http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml

Search for census information by topic (such as age, income, or year), race or ethnic group, occupation, or geographic area. Only deidentified information (that is, information that would not enable the identification of individual persons, households, or businesses) is available.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Government | Tools |

CAHPS: Surveys and tools to advance patient-centered care

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2011). CAHPS: Surveys and tools to advance patient-centered care. Retrieved from http://www.cahps.ahrq.gov

This website for the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems program offers standardized patient questionnaires on health plans, clinicians and groups, surgical care, dental plans, hospitals, nursing homes, home health care, and in-center hemodialysis. There is a survey that asks American Indians about their health care experiences. There are supplemental item sets for children with chronic conditions, people with mobility impairments, and providers of cultural competence, health literacy, and information technology.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Health Literacy | Government | Patients & Consumers |

National Healthcare Quality & Disparities Reports: NHQRDRNet

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (n.d.). National Healthcare Quality & Disparities Reports: NHQRDRNet. Retrieved from http://nhqrnet.ahrq.gov/nhqrdr/jsp/nhqrdr.jsp#snhere#snhere

NHQRDRNet is an online query system that allows access to data from the National Healthcare Quality Report and the National Healthcare Disparities Report. Information is available on the effectiveness of care in many areas, on patient safety, care coordination, access to care, various diseases and conditions, and types of care and care settings.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Disparities | Quality Improvement | Government |

Cultural competence works: Using cultural competence to improve the quality of health care for diverse populations and add value to managed care arrangements

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration. (2001). Cultural competence works: Using cultural competence to improve the quality of health care for diverse populations and add value to managed care arrangements. Retrieved from ftp://ftp.hrsa.gov/financeMC/cultural-competence.pdf

Cultural Competence Works was a nationwide competition for outstanding HRSA-funded programs that was intended to highlight the practices they employed to provide culturally competent care. The most successful programs tended to define culture broadly, value their clients' beliefs, recognize that effective interpretation requires more than a shared language, create and sustain a "learning loop" between providers and the community, engage the community to define needs, collaborate with other local agencies, establish specific hiring qualifications and training requirements, and institutionalize cultural competence at all levels of the organization.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Government |

Final data collection standards for race, ethnicity, primary language, sex, and disability status required by Section 4302 of the Affordable Care Act

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health. (2011). Final data collection standards for race, ethnicity, primary language, sex, and disability status required by Section 4302 of the Affordable Care Act. Retrieved from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/browse.aspx?lvl=2&lvlid=208

The Department of Health and Human Services published the final version of its standards for data collection on race, ethnicity, sex, primary language, and disability status on October 31, 2011. The standards apply to health surveys sponsored by HHS, which will now implement these data standards in all surveys.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Government | Tools |

Improving data for the LGBT community

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health. (2011). Improving data for the LGBT community. Retrieved from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/content.aspx?lvl=2&lvlid=209&id=9004

The Department of Health and Human Services will begin integrating sexual orientation and gender identity data into its national surveys. The HHS Data Council and the National Center for Health Statistics are working now on ways to reduce bias in the estimates. HHS surveys have not before collected any data on transgender status. If field tests are successful, data on sexual orientation will be incorporated into National Health Interview Survey data collection in 2013.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Population-Based | Government |

University of Colorado Conflict Information Consortium External Web Site Policy

University of Colorado Conflict Information Consortium. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://conflict.colorado.edu/

This website, promoting constructive approaches to conflict, offers links to information on and training in conflict resolution, including resources for difficult and intractable conflicts. The stated aim is to offer information that is trustworthy, affordable (preferably free), understandable, and comprehensive. Consortium Web pages are integrated into United Nations websites.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Communication and Language Assistance | Education & Training |

Community-based participatory research External Web Site Policy

University of Washington, Community-Campus Partnerships for Health. (n.d.). Community-based participatory research. Retrieved from http://depts.washington.edu/ccph/commbas.html

This website serves as a clearinghouse for information on "participatory models of research, in which communities are actively engaged in the research process through partnerships with academic institutions." Links are available to reports and presentations, examples of funded proposals, peer-reviewed journal articles, syllabi and course materials, electronic discussion groups, a free online course, principles and policies of community-based participatory research, and sample memoranda of understanding and memoranda of agreement for codifying partner relationships.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Tools |

Mystery shopping gaining popularity in health care sector: The rise of consumer-directed care is one reason why physicians, hospitals and health plans are sending people incognito to learn how things are working External Web Site Policy

Vogt, K. (2006, September). Mystery shopping gaining popularity in health care sector: The rise of consumer-directed care is one reason why physicians, hospitals and health plans are sending people incognito to learn how things are working. American Medical News. Retrieved from http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews/2006/09/18/bise0918.htm

"Mystery shoppers" pose as customers to report on the quality of service a business's employees provide. While still under 2 percent of the $600 million industry total in 2004, revenues from health care organizations had doubled from the previous year.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Profession-Based | Patients & Consumers |

Health care taps "mystery shoppers": To improve service, hospitals and doctors hire spies to pose as patients and report back External Web Site Policy

Wang, S. (2006, August 8). Health care taps "mystery shoppers": To improve service, hospitals and doctors hire spies to pose as patients and report back. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB115499684792929340-search.html#articleTabs%3Darticle

Some health care facilities that use "mystery shoppers" report "improved estimates of wait times, better explanations of medical procedures, extended hours for hospital administration workers, escorts for patients who have gotten lost, and even less-stressful programming on the television in the waiting room." It is becoming more frequent that levels of patient satisfaction affects hospital executives' pay. The article also touches briefly on the issues of staff dissatisfaction and medical ethics in regard to the mystery patient trend.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Profession-Based | Patients & Consumers |

Moving towards culturally competent health systems: Organizational and market factors External Web Site Policy

Weech-Maldonado, R. (2007, June 5). Moving towards culturally competent health systems: Organizational and market factors. [Presented at the Academy Health Disparities Interest Group Meeting, Orlando, FL.]

The author discusses a survey of California hospitals with the Cultural Competency Assessment Tool for Hospitals. He found that leadership is the single most important factor in determining adherence to the CLAS Standards; organizational factors such as system membership, size, and financial performance and market factors such as competition and demographics do not, themselves, have a consistent relationship to CLAS adherence; however, some organizational and market factors may have an indirect effect on CLAS adherence through having an effect on the diversity leadership.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Governance & Leadership | Tools |

Collecting and using race, ethnicity and language data in ambulatory settings: A white paper with recommendations from the Commission to End Health Care Disparities External Web Site Policy

Wynia, M., Hasnain-Wynia, R., Hotze, T., & Ivey, S. (2011). Collecting and using race, ethnicity and language data in ambulatory settings: A white paper with recommendations from the Commission to End Health Care Disparities. Retrieved from American Medical Association website: http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/public-health/cehcd-redata.pdf

The authors make the point that, to eliminate disparities in care, it is necessary to collect valid and reliable demographic data. They discuss the potential barriers to the collection and use of such data and make recommendations as to when to collect demographic data, the type of data to collect, how to ask for race, ethnicity, and primary language data. The authors also discuss patient demographic data in relation to electronic health records systems.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance |

The Dangers of Drinking and Driving External Web Site Policy

A non-promotional guide that discusses the dangers that can happen if you drink and get behind the wheel of a vehicle.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Education & Training | Health Literacy | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Research |

LGBT-TRISTAR External Web Site Policy

LGBT-TRISTAR is a government-funded technical assistance (TA) and training services division targeting providers of alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention, treatment and recovery support services. We provide on-site and online technical assistance and training designed to equip administrators and staff to provide services that are more accessible and culturally responsive to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) individuals and families.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance & Leadership | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Policy | Quality Improvement | Tools | Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services |