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Toothache in US Children External Web Site Policy

Lewis, C., & Stout, J. (2010). Toothache in US children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164, 1056-1063. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.206

Data from the National Survey of Children's Health offers evidence of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in pediatric oral health. Even when socioeconomic status was controlled for, there were inequities by race.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities |

Muslim patients and cross-gender interactions in medicine: an Islamic bioethical perspective External Web Site Policy

Padela, A. I., & Rodriguez del Pozo, P. (2010). Muslim patients and cross-gender interactions in medicine: an Islamic bioethical perspective. Journal of Medical Ethics, 37(1), 40-44. doi:10.1136/jme.2010.037614

In this article, an emergency room physician provides recommendations for accommodating Muslim sensitivities within the healthcare system. The physician identifies cultural competence as a critical way to reduce healthcare disparities arising from value and cultural differences between patients and providers, noting that adapting one's practice style to meet patient needs and values is an important way to improve quality of care.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce |

Examining Effectiveness of Medical Interpreters in Emergency Departments for Spanish-Speaking Patients With Limited English Proficiency External Web Site Policy

Bagchi, A. D., Dale, S., Verbitsky-Savitz, N., Andrecheck, S., Zavotsky, K., & Eisenstein, R. (2010). Examining effectiveness of medical interpreters in emergency departments for Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency: results of a randomized controlled trial. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 57(3), 248-256.e4. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2010.05.032

This study, published in the Annals of Emergency Medicine, examines the impact on patient and provider satisfaction of emergency department use of medical interpreters for limited-English-proficient Spanish speakers. The researchers conclude that the use of in-person, professionally trained medical interpreters significantly increases satisfaction with communication during emergency department visits for both Spanish-speaking, limited-English-proficient patients and their health providers.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Communication | Communication and Language Assistance |

Culturally Competent Care: Some Examples of What Works External Web Site Policy

Commission on the Public's Health System. (2010). Culturally competent care: some examples of what works! Retrieved from http://www.cphsnyc.org/cphs/reports/august_2010-_culturally_competen/

"Culturally Competent Care: Some Examples of What Works!" was published by the Commission on the Public's Health System of New York City. The initiative surveyed 659 parents in 12 languages about their children's health and access to care and reveals many cultural and linguistic barriers in access to care for children. A Cultural Checklist was developed, incorporating these findings to be used to interviews and while touring provider sites.

Keywords:    Tools | Public Health | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Dental Care For Publicly Insured Children External Web Site Policy

Pourat, N., & Finocchio, L. (2010). Racial and ethnic disparities in dental care for publicly insured children. Health Affairs, 29(7), 1356-1363. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0089

A study published in Health Affairs examines oral health disparities among children in California. It determines that nearly 25 percent of children in California have never been to the dentist and that disparities exist across race, ethnicity, and type of insurance when it comes to the length of time between dental care visits.

Keywords:    Research | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disparities |

At Hospitals, New Methods With a Focus on Diversity External Web Site Policy

Santos, F. (2010, September 6) At hospitals, new methods with a focus on diversity. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

This New York Times article discusses the ways that hospitals nationwide are adopting practices intended to improve care for an increasingly diverse patient population beyond language access services. Making immigrant and minority individuals feel more at ease can translate into improved health outcomes according to health providers.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Cancer study sees cultural factors in racial disparities External Web Site Policy

Avery, S. (2010, June 16). Cancer study sees cultural factors in racial disparities. The News & Observer. Retrieved from http://www.newsobserver.com/

The Journal of the American Medical Association has published a study from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill about the cultural factors present in the racial disparities of lung cancer. The scientists concluded that, despite a high likelihood of death, Black patients are much less inclined to have surgery for early stage lung cancer than White patients, often because of a communication gulf between them and their doctors.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Ending health disparities takes interdisciplinary approach External Web Site Policy

Lewis, C., & Stout, J. (2010). Toothache in US children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164, 1056-1063. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.206

In this message from the American Medical Association (AMA) president to all physicians, Dr. Rohack notes that an interdisciplinary approach to patient-centered care may help reduce health disparities by addressing challenges in communication such as low health literacy and medication mismanagement. He commits to helping guide the changes needed to ensure culturally competent patient care. When patients do not understand their medical conditions or what to do to control them, unnecessary healthcare costs only will increase, a situation he notes the AMA is committed to avoiding.

Keywords:    Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Future Directions for the National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports External Web Site Policy

Institute of Medicine. (2010). Future directions for the national healthcare quality and disparities reports. Retrieved from http://iom.edu/

The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released in Spring 2010 a report that discusses future directions for the AHRQ National Healthcare Quality Report (NHQR) and National Healthcare Disparities Report (NHDR). The IOM concludes that the NHQR and NHDR can be improved in ways that would make them more influential in promoting change in the healthcare system.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disease-Based | Quality Improvement | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health Disparities Education External Web Site Policy

Lypson, M. L., Bussey-Jones, J., Glick, S., Brown, A. F., & Jacobs, E. A. (2010). Health disparities education. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(2), 79-81. doi: 10.1007/s11606-010-1312-2

The Journal of General Internal Medicine dedicated its May 2010 supplement to health disparities education. This supplement focuses on approaches to teaching health disparities and health disparities curriculums for students. It contains 27 articles, including "Medical Students' Perceptions of Their Teachers' and Their Own Cultural Competency: Implications for Education" and "Beyond Knowledge, Toward Linguistic Competency: An Experiential Curriculum."

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance & Leadership | Profession-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

HHS Launches Oral Health Initiative

HHS Launches Oral Health Initiative. (2010, April 26). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/

In April 2010, Dr. Howard Koh (Assistant Secretary for Health, HHS) announced an initiative to expand oral health services, education, and research in America ("Oral Health Is Integral to Overall Health"). Through the initiative, the department is increasing support for access to oral healthcare and the delivery of services to underserved populations.

Keywords:    Policy | Government | Profession-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Cultural competence in oncology: Where do we stand? External Web Site Policy

Surbone, A. (2010). Cultural competence in oncology: where do we stand? Annals of Oncology, 21(1), 3-5. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdp546

This article in Annals of Oncology discusses the importance and relevance of culturally competent services in oncology. The author emphasizes that cultural differences are a major determinant of unequal access to cancer care. She concludes that provider practice of cultural competence can improve the quality of care offered to all cancer patients and can also foster reciprocal understanding and tolerance in the patient-doctor-institution relationship.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Profession-Based | Disease-Based | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Talking With Patients: How Hospitals Use Bilingual Clinicians and Staff to Care for Patients with Language Needs External Web Site Policy

Huang, J., Jones, R. C., & Regenstein, M. (2009). Talking with patients: how hospitals use bilingual clinicians and staff to care for patients with language needs. Abstract retrieved from The George Washington University website: http://www.gwumc.edu/sphhs/departments/healthpolicy/dhp_publications/?mdl=pubSearch&evt=view&PublicationID=2AD9B782-5056-9D20-3D85DD1E4BD4272B

This report from The George Washington University presents findings from a survey about bilingual clinicians who interact with limited-English-proficient patients. The survey reveals that many hospitals have bilingual clinicians but often do not adequately assess their language proficiency, meaning that the language access services provided are of unknown quality. The report concludes that proper assessment and use of bilingual staff will allow health systems to meet the needs of linguistically diverse communities.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance & Leadership | Profession-Based | Communication | Communication and Language Assistance |

The New Era of Professional Healthcare Interpreters External Web Site Policy

Birz, S. (2009, October 23). The new era of professional healthcare interpreters. AMN Healthcare. Retrieved from http://www.amnhealthcare.com/Default.aspx

This article discusses the need for language access service criteria, such as having interpreters professionally trained and credentialed to better guarantee effective communication between healthcare providers and patients. It also recommends that within the next year, healthcare organizations should begin using the Certification Commission for Healthcare Interpreters to find credentialed interpreters.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Profession-Based | Communication | Communication and Language Assistance |

Reducing Health Disparities Through a Culturally Centered Mentorship Program for Minority Faculty: The Southwest Addictions Research Group (SARG) Experience External Web Site Policy

Viets, V. L., Baca, C., Verney, S. P., Venner, K., Parker T., & Wallerstein, N. (2009). Reducing health disparities through a culturally centered mentorship program for minority faculty: the southwest addictions research group (SARG) experience. Academic Medicine, 84(8), 1118-1126. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181ad1cb1

This study examines the prospect of reducing health disparities through recruitment of minority faculty using a formal mentorship program. A Culturally Centered Mentorship Model was created that emphasizes culture, community service, and community-based participatory research to support the recruitment and advancement of ethnic minority faculty members in academia.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance & Leadership | Profession-Based | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Multicultural Health Care: A Quality Improvement Guide

National Committee for Quality Assurance, & Lilly USA, LLC. (2011). Multicultural health care: a quality improvement guide. Retrieved from http://www.clashealth.org/

The National Committee for Quality Assurance and Lilly USA, LLC, have developed Multicultural Health Care: A Quality Improvement Guide, a free, online resource for healthcare professionals. The website helps those seeking to undertake quality improvement initiatives to improve culturally and linguistically appropriate services and to reduce disparities in care.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Profession-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

CSMS issues results of health disparities survey External Web Site Policy

CSMS issues results of health disparities survey. (2009, October 28). Connecticut State Medical Society. Retrieved from http://www.csms.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2415&Itemid=222

This article discusses the results of a survey conducted by the Connecticut State Medical Society (CSMS) about physicians' views on ways to reduce disparities in healthcare, including cultural competency training. The results indicate that Connecticut physicians believe they could provide better care to patients of minority communities if they had better access to training. As a result of these findings, CSMS has committed to providing cultural competency training to physicians to help eliminate healthcare disparities in Connecticut.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Profession-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

California's Emergency Preparedness Efforts for Culturally Diverse Communities: Status, Challenges and Directions for the Future External Web Site Policy

Andrulis, D., Siddiqui, N., & Purtle, J. (2009). California's emergency preparedness efforts for culturally diverse communities: status, challenges and directions for the future. Retrieved from Drexel University Center for Health Equality and HHS Office of Minority Health website: http://www.diversitypreparedness.org/

This report conducts a systematic assessment of emergency preparedness programs and initiatives for racially and ethnically diverse communities in California, examining barriers to care as well as opportunities for improvement. While this report focuses on the State of California, it provides a methodological framework that allows for similar assessments to be conducted at national, State, and local levels.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved External Web Site Policy

Brennan, V. M. (Ed.). (2009). Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. doi: 10.1353/hpu.0.0146

The May 2009 issue of the Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved offers a variety of articles that address issues of health disparities and access to care. It highlights medical education issues regarding obstacles and supports for different minority groups during the application process for medical school. It includes a section on immigrant health, which contains articles on a variety of racial and ethnic groups, including Chinese and Latinos.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

National Pharmacy Benefit Manager to Strengthen How it Provides Language Assistance Services External Web Site Policy

National pharmacy benefit manager to strengthen how it provides language assistance services. (2009, June 15). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/

The HHS announced that Medco, a national pharmacy benefit management company, will significantly improve its language access services for limited-English-proficient individuals. The acting director of the HHS Office for Civil Rights noted that this development will combat health disparities, promote healthcare reform, and improve access to care.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance |

One Size Does Not Fit All: Meeting The Health Care Needs of Diverse Populations External Web Site Policy

Wilson-Stronks, A., Lee, K. K., Cordero, C. L., Kopp, A. L., & Galvez, E. (2008). One size does not fit all: meeting the health care needs of diverse populations. Retrieved from The Joint Commission website: http://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/6/HLCOneSizeFinal.pdf

This report provides insight into the ways in which hospitals meet diverse patient needs and reduce health disparities. It examines the challenge that healthcare organizations face when addressing cultural and language issues, and it provides a general framework for developing organizational cultural competence. The report stresses that each hospital is responsible for tailoring an approach to cultural competence that addresses its needs rather than relying on a "one size fits all" solution.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Profession-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

National Consensus Statement on Integrating Racially and Ethnically Diverse Communities into Public Health Emergency Preparedness External Web Site Policy

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Office of Minority Health and Drexel University, Center for Health Equality National Consensus Panel on Emergency Preparedness and Cultural Diversity. (2008). National consensus statement on integrating racially and ethnically diverse communities into public health emergency preparedness. Retrieved from http://www.diversitypreparedness.org/SiteData/docs/National%20Consensus%20Statement%20%26%20Guiding%20Principles%20%26%20Panel%20List%20508/695132ab58eb36a7c2f67ba98d5a72ec/National%20Consensus%20Statement%20%26%20Guiding%20Principles%20%26%20Panel%20List%20508.pdf

This statement provides a framework for integrating racially and ethnically diverse communities into emergency preparedness. It was developed by the National Consensus Panel on Emergency Preparedness and Cultural Diversity, an initiative of the Drexel University School of Public Health's Center for Health Equality and the HHS Office of Minority Health.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Educating Physicians to Provide Culturally Competent, Patient-Centered Care External Web Site Policy

Like, R. C., Barrett, T. J., & Moon, J. (2008, Summer). Educating physicians to provide culturally competent, patient-centered care. Perspectives: A View of Family Medicine in New Jersey, 7(2), 10-20. Retrieved from http://www.njafp.org/publications/archive

This article in a New Jersey family medicine publication discusses the history of, rationale for, and effects of the legislation in New Jersey enacted in March 2005 that requires all physicians to complete cultural competency training for re-licensure and mandates the inclusion of relevant curricular content in the State's medical schools. It also outlines the development of cultural competency in legislation throughout the country on both State and national levels.

Keywords:    Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health Disparities: Barriers to a Culture of Preparedness External Web Site Policy

Honore, R. L. (2008). Health Disparities: Barriers to a Culture of Preparedness. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 14(6), S5-S7. doi: 10.1097/01.PHH.0000338381.29071.d6

This article discusses the ways that inequalities in health and healthcare present a barrier to the United States' disaster preparedness and response activities. The article sets out to show that individuals, communities, the private sector, nonprofits, and all levels of government need to work together to reduce health inequalities to improve the Nation's level of preparedness and response to a crisis.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Physician Implicit Attitudes and Stereotypes About Race and Quality of Medical Care External Web Site Policy

Sabin, J. A., Rivara, F. P., & Greenwald, A. G. (2008). Physician implicit attitudes and stereotypes about race and quality of medical care. Medical Care, 46(7), 678-685. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e3181653d58

This study used a social psychological perspective to examine what effects healthcare providers' implicit attitudes about race have on healthcare and racial and ethnic healthcare disparities. The data indicate that most doctors in all racial and ethnic groups show an implicit preference of Whites over Blacks except for Black doctors, who show no preference for either race.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Journal of Public Health Management & Practice External Web Site Policy

Graham, G. N., Honore, P. A., & Beadle, M. (Eds.). (2008). Supplement 6. In Novick, L. F. (Journal Ed.) Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 14(6), S1-S87. Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/jphmp/pages/toc.aspx?year=2008&issue=11001

This supplemental issue of the Journal of Public Health Management & Practice is dedicated to health disparities. It contains articles on a wide variety of topics relating to health disparities and includes an editorial from Dr. Garth Graham, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Minority Health.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Roadmap to diversity: Key legal and educational policy foundations for medical schools External Web Site Policy

Coleman, A. L., Palmer, S. R., Winnick, S. Y., & Holland & Knight, L.L.P. (2008). Roadmap to diversity: key legal and educational policy foundations for medical schools. Association of American Medical Colleges. Retrieved from http://www.cossa.org/diversity/reports/Key_Legal_and_Policy_Foundations_for_Medical_Schools.pdf

This report, published by the Association of American Medical Colleges, seeks to provide hands-on guidance to medical schools that seek to improve diversity among their students, their missions, and their policies. The report is designed to guide all medical schools in their quest for increased diversity.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

The influence of physicians' demographic characteristics and their patients' demographic characteristics on physician practice: Implications for education and research External Web Site Policy

Berger, J. T. "The influence of physicians' demographic characteristics and their patients' demographic characteristics on physician practice: Implications for education and research." Academic Medicine, 83.1 (2008): 100-105.

Demographic differences, specifically race, gender, and religion, have been shown to affect the diagnosis, type of treatment, and prevention methods provided to patients. This study from Academic Medicine highlights the necessity of cultural self-awareness and individualized patient care.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Viewpoint: Physician, know thyself: The professional cultural of medicine as a framework for teaching cultural competence External Web Site Policy

Boutin-Foster, C., Foster, J. C., & Konopasek, L. (2008). Viewpoint: physician, know thyself: the professional cultural of medicine as a framework for teaching cultural competence. Academic Medicine, 83(1), 106-111. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e31815c6753

Medical schools are emphasizing the importance of cultural competency education, but its emphasis is often overshadowed by a number of challenges, which are addressed in this article. The article discusses several curricula changes for teaching cultural competence to physicians that will assist medical professionals in becoming more adequate in providing care to culturally and linguistically diverse populations.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Profession-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Demographics and Health Care Access and Utilization of Limited-English-Proficient and English-Proficient Hispanics

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2008). Research findings #28: demographics and health care access and utilization of limited-English-proficient and English-proficient Hispanics. Retrieved from http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb/data_files/publications/rf28/rf28.pdf

Using data from the 2004 Household Component of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, researchers examined the use and access of healthcare among Hispanic adults with limited English proficiency as well as English-proficient Hispanic adults. In comparison to English-proficient Hispanic adults, it was found that limited-English-proficiency Hispanic adults are more likely to be less educated, have a lower income, be unemployed, be without private insurance or uninsured, use health services less often, and have a lower satisfaction rate with the healthcare they receive.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Public health preparedness: Mobilizing state by state

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response. (2008). Public health preparedness: mobilizing state by state. A CDC report on the public health emergency preparedness cooperating agreement. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/

The report details the progress of States in preparedness and response issues. This report is intended to serve as a first step in detailing collaboration efforts in preparedness between local, State, and Federal governments. National and State-specific data are presented for all 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Public Health | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

National Resource Center External Web Site Policy

Drexel University School of Public Health's Center for Public Health Readiness & Communication, & U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Office of Minority Health. National resource center on advancing emergency preparedness for culturally diverse communities. (2011, June 10). Retrieved from http://www.diversitypreparedness.org/

The National Resource Center is a database of resources on the public health preparedness needs of diverse communities. The National Resource Center aims to serve as a clearinghouse for those stakeholders who are working to eliminate disparities among minority communities before, during, and following disasters.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Education & Training | Public Health | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Community variation: Disparities in health care quality between Asian and white Medicare beneficiaries External Web Site Policy

Moy, E., Greenberg, L. G., & Borsky, A. E. "Community variation: Disparities in health care quality between Asian and white Medicare beneficiaries." Health Affairs 27.2 (2008): 538-549.

This study focused on disparities in quality of health care received between Asian and white Medicare recipients. The researchers found that, overall, Asian Medicare beneficiaries were less likely than whites to receive any of the services examined.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disease-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Ready or not? Protecting the public's health from diseases, disasters, and bioterrorism, 2010 External Web Site Policy

Trust for America's Health, & The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2010). Ready or not 2010: protecting the public's health from diseases, disasters, and bioterrorism. Retrieved from the Trust for America's Health website: http://www.healthyamericans.org/assets/files/TFAH2010ReadyorNot%20FINAL.pdf

Since 2003, Trust for America's Health has been measuring the Nation's emergency health preparedness efforts to evaluate what is being done at the Federal, State, and local levels. This eighth annual Ready or Not? report regarding the United States' level of preparedness for disasters, bioterrorism threats, and disease epidemics indicates that, while important progress has been made in the Nation's public health preparedness, efforts need to continue, and much remains to be done.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Creating Equity Reports: A Guide for Hospitals. Boston, MA External Web Site Policy

Weinick, R. M., Flaherty, K., & Bristol, S. J. (2008). Creating Equity Reports: A Guide for Hospitals. Retrieved from The Disparities Solutions Center, Massachusetts General Hospital website: http://www2.massgeneral.org/disparitiessolutions/z_files/Disparities%20Hospital%20guide.qxp.pdf

The findings in this report indicate that although many hospitals collect information about their patients' demographics, race, and ethnicity, they often do not make use of the information. This resource is a guide designed to assist hospitals in using that information to develop an equity report.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Profession-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Health Literacy | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Guidance for Integrating Culturally Diverse Communities into Planning for and Responding to Emergencies: A Toolkit External Web Site Policy

Andrulis, D. P., Siddiqui, N. J., & Purtle, J. (2011). Guidance for integrating culturally diverse communities into planning for and responding to emergencies: a toolkit. Retrieved from the National Resource Center on Advancing Emergency Preparedness for Culturally Diverse Communities website: http://www.texashealthinstitute.org/files/OMHDiversityPreparednessToolkit.pdf

This toolkit from the Office of Minority Health assists agencies in working with diverse communities to address a broader set of priorities to improve health and quality of life that are central to effective emergency event strategies and actions. It offers recommendations, resources, and practical strategies for engaging and integrating culturally diverse communities across emergency planning and response actions.

Keywords:    Tools | Government | Public Health | Profession-Based | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Language and literacy relate to lack of children's dental sealant use External Web Site Policy

Mejia, G. C., Weintraub, J. A., Cheng, N. F., Grossman, W., Han, P. Z., Phipps, K. R., & Gansky, S. A. (2010). Language and literacy relate to lack of children's dental sealant use. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 39. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2010.00599.x

This study from the journal Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology tracks the social determinants of children lacking sealants. The study finds that differences exist by level of acculturation and parental health literacy.

Keywords:    Research | Disparities | Profession-Based | Disease-Based |

Medical Interpreters Are a Patient's Right External Web Site Policy

Krtiz, F. L. (2010, December 27). Medical interpreters are a patient's right. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/

This article documents language access requirements and advancements that help the healthcare system facilitate communication between providers and those who are limited English proficient. It discusses technological improvements, nationwide certification bodies, and Federal and State laws.

Keywords:    Policy | Communication and Language Assistance | Governance & Leadership | Research | Profession-Based |

State Works to Improve Indian Health External Web Site Policy

Uken, C. (2011, January 8). State works to improve Indian health. The Billings Gazette. Retrieved from http://billingsgazette.com/news/state-and-regional/montana/article_efcf15bc-85d1-5af5-b396-eac182a2d146.html

This article details Montana's comprehensive efforts to address health disparities suffered by the State's American Indian population. Montana is implementing culturally competent services and partnering with tribal governments to improve the health of this population.

Keywords:    Population-Based | Policy | Profession-Based | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Quality Improvement | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Multicultural HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis Service External Web Site Policy

A public site where people can access multilingual information on HIV and Hepatitis C.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Clinical & Mental Health | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disease-Based | Disparities | Education & Training | Government | Health Literacy | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Patients & Consumers | Policy | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Public Health | Quality Improvement | Research | Tools |

Reexamining LGBT Healthcare External Web Site Policy

Out of the box LGBT cultural competence training, including 10-minute original video, slides and a manual

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance & Leadership | Clinical & Mental Health | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disease-Based | Disparities | Education & Training | Government | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Public Health |

Health literacy and emergency department outcomes: A systematic review

Herndon, J., Chaney, M., & Carden, D. (2011). Health literacy and emergency department outcomes: A systematic review. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 57(4), 334-345. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2010.08.035

The authors assess, through a systematic review of the literature, the relationship among the health literacy levels of emergency department patients, the readability of patient materials, and emergency department outcomes.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Health Literacy | Profession-Based | Research |

Cultural safety in nursing: The New Zealand experience External Web Site Policy

Papps, E., & Ramsden, I. (1996). Cultural safety in nursing: The New Zealand experience. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 8(5), 491-497. doi:10.1093/intqh/8.5.491

In 1992, under prompting by Maori nurses, the Nursing Council of New Zealand made "cultural safety" a requirement for the training of persons seeking registration as nurses or midwives. "Safety," in this context, refers to someone who is safe or competent in practice. "Cultural safety" meant that nurses who attend individuals from another culture have "undertaken a process of reflection" on the way in which their own cultural identities may affect practice. This paper outlines the background and rationale of, and controversy surrounding, the introduction of "cultural safety" into nursing education and practice and discusses the relation between cultural safety and the quality of care.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Profession-Based | Research |

Patient communication assessment tool External Web Site Policy

The Joint Commission. (2010). Patient communication assessment tool [Figure 5-1]. In Advancing effective communication, cultural competence, and patient- and family-centered care: A roadmap for hospitals. Retrieved from http://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/6/ARoadmapforHospitalsfinalversion727.pdf

This page in the Joint Commission's Roadmap for Hospitals shows a sample patient communication assessment tool "designed to be incorporated into computerized charting menus to help nurses select drop down items which corresponded to their patient communication assessment, intervention, and evaluation process."

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Profession-Based | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Tools |

Transcultural Nursing Society External Web Site Policy

Transcultural Nursing Society. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.tcns.org/

The stated goals of the society include the advancement of cultural competence for nurses worldwide, the support of scholarship, and the building of a body of substantive knowledge in the field of transcultural nursing. Links to the Journal of Transcultural Nursing, conferences, and relevant Web pages of other organizations are provided.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Profession-Based | Public Health |

Nine constructs of cultural competence for curriculum development External Web Site Policy

Echeverri, M., Brookover, C., & Kennedy, K. (2010). Nine constructs of cultural competence for curriculum development. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(10), Article 181. Retrieved from http://www.ajpe.org/doi/pdf/10.5688/aj7410181

The authors undertook an examination of the validity and reliability of the self-administered Clinical Cultural Competency Questionnaire. They administered the CCCQ to students in the College of Pharmacy at Xavier University. The authors conclude that the CCCQ is "a practical, valid, and reliable self-assessment instrument to measure the perceived level of pharmacy students' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and encounters in cross-cultural environments. The questionnaire allowed the identification of students' needs for training in cultural competence and the development of a curriculum tailored to satisfy those needs."

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Profession-Based | Research |

A manager's guide to cultural competence education for health care professionals External Web Site Policy

Gilbert, M. J. (Ed.). (2003). A manager's guide to cultural competence education for health care professionals. Retrieved from http://dml.georgetown.edu/resources/12914.html

This guide contains information on structuring a cultural competence training program and offers resources useful in setting up such a program, identifying qualified trainers, and assessing organizational and staff levels of cultural competence. The guide notes a difference in content, purpose, methods, and training techniques between workforce diversity training and cultural competence training for health care professionals.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Education & Training | Profession-Based |

Strategies to improve communication between pharmacy staff and patients: Training program for pharmacy staff

Kripalani, S., & Jacobson, K. L. (2007). Strategies to improve communication between pharmacy staff and patients: Training program for pharmacy staff [Curriculum guide] (AHRQ Publication No. 07(08)-0051-1-EF). Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/pharmlit/pharmtrain.htm

This PowerPoint slide set with notes for the trainer is also available in PDF format from the same site. A reference list is included. Handouts are available. Estimated presentation time is two hours. Topics include health literacy in America, high-risk groups, possible indicators of low health literacy, universal precautions, and five strategies to improve communication.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Health Literacy | Profession-Based |

Clinical cultural competency questionnaire External Web Site Policy

Like, R. C. (2001). Clinical cultural competency questionnaire. Retrieved from Robert Wood Johnson Medical School website: http://rwjms.umdnj.edu/departments_institutes/family_medicine/chfcd/grants_projects/aetna.html

The Clinical Cultural Competency Questionnaire is available from this Web page, here adapted as pretraining and posttraining versions that vary from one another only slightly. It was developed "as a tool for assessing physicians' knowledge, skills, and attitudes relating to the provision of culturally competent health care to diverse patient populations."

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Profession-Based | Education & Training |

Recommended core curriculum guidelines on culturally sensitive and competent health care External Web Site Policy

Like, R. C., Steiner, R. P., & Rubel, A. J. (1996). Recommended core curriculum guidelines on culturally sensitive and competent health care. Family Medicine, 28, 291-297. Retrieved from http://www.stfm.org/corep.html

The authors offer recommendations, covering attitudes, knowledge, and skills, to help family medicine residency programs train physicians in the provision of culturally sensitive and competent care.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Profession-Based | Education & Training |

Curriculum for culturally responsive health care: the step-by-step guide for cultural competence training External Web Site Policy

Ring, J., Nyquist, J., Mitchell, S., Flores, H., & Samaniego, L. (2008). Curriculum for culturally responsive health care: the step-by-step guide for cultural competence training. Oxford, UK: Radcliffe Publishing.

The authors' stated goal was to have produced a state-of-the-art curriculum with a comprehensive and user-friendly manual. The curriculum is intended for academic institutions and residencies wishing to offer (or to enhance) curricula in culturally responsive care. It grew out of the authors' experience with a family medicine residency program in an underserved, predominantly Latino community in East Los Angeles. A step-by-step guide is provided for each year of the curriculum, with session descriptions, discussion of teaching techniques, evaluation tools, and exercises.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Education & Training | Profession-Based |

Cultural competency training and performance reports to improve diabetes care for black patients: A cluster randomized, controlled trial External Web Site Policy

Sequist, T. D., Fitzmaurice, G. M., Marshall, R., Shaykevich, S., Marston, A., Safran, D. G., & Ayanian, J. Z. (2010). Cultural competency training and performance reports to improve diabetes care for black patients: A cluster randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 152(1), 40-46.

The authors evaluated the effect of cultural competency training and performance feedback for 124 primary care physicians treating a population of approximately 7,500 diabetic patients. They find that physician awareness of racial disparities in diabetes care increased but that, overall, clinical outcomes did not improve.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Quality Improvement | Disease-Based | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Public Health |

A physician's practical guide to culturally competent care

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health. (n.d.). A physician's practical guide to culturally competent care. Retrieved from https://cccm.thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/

This e-learning program uses individual cases to illustrate areas of miscommunication and cultural misunderstanding. Participants will learn how to address language and cultural barriers, how to work with interpreters, how to practice patient-centered care, how to understand their patients' explanatory models, and how to establish community partnerships. Continuing education credit is available.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Profession-Based | Government |

Cultural competency curriculum for disaster preparedness and crisis response

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health. (n.d.). Cultural competency curriculum for disaster preparedness and crisis response. Retrieved from https://cccdpcr.thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/

This set of courses for emergency medical personnel and disaster relief workers of all types was designed address disparities related to race and culture during disasters. Topics covered include working with interpreters, locating translated materials, negotiating cultural differences, and incorporating the National CLAS Standards into organizational policy. Continuing education credit is available.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Profession-Based | Government |

Culturally competent nursing care: A cornerstone of caring

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health. (n.d.). Culturally competent nursing care: A cornerstone of caring. Retrieved from https://ccnm.thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/

Nurses spend more time in direct patient care than other health professionals. This training, designed to enhance nurses' abilities to provided culturally appropriate care, has been approved for nine contact hours of continuing education credit.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Profession-Based | Government |

California Healthcare Interpreting Association External Web Site Policy

California Healthcare Interpreting Association. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://chiaonline.org/

Association membership is open to individuals or organizations. The site provides standards for interpreters, training opportunities, a job board for members, and notice of events and conferences.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Profession-Based | Governance & Leadership |

Certification Commission for Healthcare Interpreters External Web Site Policy

Certification Commission for Healthcare Interpreters. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.healthcareinterpretercertification.org/

Established in 2009, CCHI offers a certification created by health care interpreters for health care interpreters. The certification program is vendor neutral, meaning that it is "based on data from the field regarding ... knowledge, skills, performance and employers' expectations" rather than on completion of a specific training program. The website offers a fact sheet, FAQs, a resources page of pertinent sites, and access to webinars, all having a focus on interpreter credentialing.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Tools | Profession-Based |

How to choose and develop written educational materials

Pierce, L. (2010). How to choose and develop written educational materials. Rehabilitation Nursing, 35(3), 99-105. Retrieved from http://www.rehabnurse.org/pdf/rnj320.pdf

The author offers guidelines to help nurses and other health care professionals select appropriately readable, authoritative, informative, and unbiased health education materials for patients and their families. When suitable materials are not already available, the author shows how they may be developed or adapted.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Profession-Based | Health Literacy |

Addressing language access issues in your practice: A toolkit for physicians and their staff members External Web Site Policy

Roat, C. E. (2005). Addressing language access issues in your practice: A toolkit for physicians and their staff members. Retrieved from The California Endowment website: www.calendow.org/uploadedFiles/language_access_issues.pdf

This guide presents a systems approach to the redesign of physician office practices to maximize the quality of care provided for patients with limited English proficiency. It encourages small steps toward the goal of a complete language access system. Among the many topics discussed are the tracking of language preferences, the pros and cons of various language assistance options, working with on-site or remote interpreters, and identifying the right mix of services for a particular office and patient population.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Quality Improvement | Profession-Based |

Resident physicians' preparedness to provide cross-cultural care: Implications for clinical care and medical education policy External Web Site Policy

Betancourt, J. R., Weissman, J. S, Kim, M. K., Park, E., & Maina, A. W. (2007). Resident physicians' preparedness to provide cross-cultural care: Implications for clinical care and medical education policy. Retrieved from The Commonwealth Fund website: http://www.commonwealthfund.org/usr_doc/1026_Betancourt_resident_MDs_preparedness_provide_cross-cultural_care.pdf

Noting that some residents in their final year of training felt unprepared to care for patients whose cultural characteristics (which may include mistrust of the health care system or beliefs at odds with Western medicine) are very far from their own, the authors recommend integration of cross-cultural training into curricula, the training of faculty members, and mandatory formal evaluation of residents' cross-cultural communication skills.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Profession-Based | Policy | Public Health |

Barriers to collecting patient race, ethnicity and primary language data in physician practices: An exploratory study

Hasnain-Wynia, R., Van Dyke, K., Youdelman, M., Krautkramer, C., Ivey, S., Gilchick, R., ... & Wynia M. (2010). Barriers to collecting patient race, ethnicity and primary language data in physician practices: An exploratory study. Journal of the National Medical Association, 102(9), 769-775.

The authors conducted telephone interviews with representatives of 20 small practices (five or fewer physicians) nationwide. Nine practices reported collecting demographic data. One linked demographic data to quality. The single practice feature noted as facilitating the collection of demographic data was the use of an electronic medical records system. Pay-for-performance programs and cultural competency training did not have an effect on data collection. Perceived barriers included privacy concerns, uncertainty regarding the usefulness of the data, the legality of collecting the information, and possible patient and staff resistance.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Profession-Based | Policy | Public Health |

Development and validation of a patient-reported measure of physician cultural competency External Web Site Policy

Thom, D. H., & Tirado, M. D. (2006). Development and validation of a patient-reported measure of physician cultural competency. Medical Care Research and Review, 63(5), 636-655. doi:10.1177/1077558706290946

The authors note that "the lack of a measure of cultural competency limits our ability to evaluate interventions and to understand the effects of cultural competency on health care quality." They report their efforts to construct and validate "a patient-reported measure of physician culturally competent communication behaviors."

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Profession-Based | Patients & Consumers |

Mystery shopping gaining popularity in health care sector: The rise of consumer-directed care is one reason why physicians, hospitals and health plans are sending people incognito to learn how things are working External Web Site Policy

Vogt, K. (2006, September). Mystery shopping gaining popularity in health care sector: The rise of consumer-directed care is one reason why physicians, hospitals and health plans are sending people incognito to learn how things are working. American Medical News. Retrieved from http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews/2006/09/18/bise0918.htm

"Mystery shoppers" pose as customers to report on the quality of service a business's employees provide. While still under 2 percent of the $600 million industry total in 2004, revenues from health care organizations had doubled from the previous year.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Profession-Based | Patients & Consumers |

Health care taps "mystery shoppers": To improve service, hospitals and doctors hire spies to pose as patients and report back External Web Site Policy

Wang, S. (2006, August 8). Health care taps "mystery shoppers": To improve service, hospitals and doctors hire spies to pose as patients and report back. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB115499684792929340-search.html#articleTabs%3Darticle

Some health care facilities that use "mystery shoppers" report "improved estimates of wait times, better explanations of medical procedures, extended hours for hospital administration workers, escorts for patients who have gotten lost, and even less-stressful programming on the television in the waiting room." It is becoming more frequent that levels of patient satisfaction affects hospital executives' pay. The article also touches briefly on the issues of staff dissatisfaction and medical ethics in regard to the mystery patient trend.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Profession-Based | Patients & Consumers |