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Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare in California External Web Site Policy

California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. (2010). Racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare in California: California fact book. Retrieved from http://www.oshpd.ca.gov/HID/Products/PatDischargeData/ResearchReports/EthnicRacialDisp/RacialEthnic
FactBook_2010.pdf

The State of California conducted a study on racial and ethnic health disparities in 2010. Although the study found improvement in many areas, it also found that significant inequities persist. The authors note that the report provides strong evidence for policymakers, healthcare providers, public health professionals, researchers, and other interested stakeholders to focus efforts on addressing access to and quality of care.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities |

Culturally Competent Care: Some Examples of What Works External Web Site Policy

Commission on the Public's Health System. (2010). Culturally competent care: some examples of what works! Retrieved from http://www.cphsnyc.org/cphs/reports/august_2010-_culturally_competen/

"Culturally Competent Care: Some Examples of What Works!" was published by the Commission on the Public's Health System of New York City. The initiative surveyed 659 parents in 12 languages about their children's health and access to care and reveals many cultural and linguistic barriers in access to care for children. A Cultural Checklist was developed, incorporating these findings to be used to interviews and while touring provider sites.

Keywords:    Tools | Public Health | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act Of 2010: Advancing Health Equity for Racially and Ethnically Diverse Populations External Web Site Policy

Andrulis, D. P., Siddiqui, N. J., Purtle, J. P., & Duchon, L. (2010). Patient protection and affordable care act of 2010: advancing health equity for racially and ethnically diverse populations. Retrieved from Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies website: http://www.jointcenter.org/sites/default/files/upload/research/files/Patient%20Protection%20and%20Affordable%20Care%20Act.pdf

The Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies has published a report detailing the implications of 2010's healthcare reform on health equity. It states that recent healthcare reform legislation offers an unprecedented opportunity to improve health equity in the United States.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Race, culture may play role in Alzheimer's disease External Web Site Policy

Brophy Marcus, M. (2010, July 14). Race, culture may play role in Alzheimer's disease. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/

This article discusses research presented at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference. It examines the effect of racial and cultural differences on Alzheimer's patients' outcomes and the attitudes of their family members. The study finds that more culturally tailored resources could benefit African Americans, Latinos, and other minority groups.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care External Web Site Policy

American College of Physicians. (2010).Racial and ethnic disparities in health care, updated 2010. Retrieved from http://www.acponline.org/advocacy/where_we_stand/access/racial_disparities.pdf

The American College of Physicians released a 2010 update to its policy paper, "Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care." It calls for the healthcare system to adapt to meet the needs of an increasingly multicultural patient base. Recommendations include that healthcare professionals need to acknowledge the cultural, informational, and linguistic needs of their patients as our society increasingly becomes more racially and ethnically diverse.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Health Literacy | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance |

Irvine's Hoag Hospital works to bridge cultural barriers External Web Site Policy

Reicher, M. (2010, September 8). Irvine's Hoag Hospital works to bridge cultural barriers. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2010/sep/08/local/la-me-hoag-hospital-20100908

This article details a California hospital's efforts to incorporate culturally competent practices into its services and system. Hoag Hospital in Irvine, CA, took many steps to adapt to its patients' cultural beliefs, traditions, and languages. These preparations include creating patient rooms arranged according to the principles of feng shui, serving steamed rice for breakfast, and using gestures such as presenting documents respectfully with two hands and speaking to patients with more formality.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

At Hospitals, New Methods With a Focus on Diversity External Web Site Policy

Santos, F. (2010, September 6) At hospitals, new methods with a focus on diversity. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

This New York Times article discusses the ways that hospitals nationwide are adopting practices intended to improve care for an increasingly diverse patient population beyond language access services. Making immigrant and minority individuals feel more at ease can translate into improved health outcomes according to health providers.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Cancer study sees cultural factors in racial disparities External Web Site Policy

Avery, S. (2010, June 16). Cancer study sees cultural factors in racial disparities. The News & Observer. Retrieved from http://www.newsobserver.com/

The Journal of the American Medical Association has published a study from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill about the cultural factors present in the racial disparities of lung cancer. The scientists concluded that, despite a high likelihood of death, Black patients are much less inclined to have surgery for early stage lung cancer than White patients, often because of a communication gulf between them and their doctors.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Future Directions for the National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports External Web Site Policy

Institute of Medicine. (2010). Future directions for the national healthcare quality and disparities reports. Retrieved from http://iom.edu/

The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released in Spring 2010 a report that discusses future directions for the AHRQ National Healthcare Quality Report (NHQR) and National Healthcare Disparities Report (NHDR). The IOM concludes that the NHQR and NHDR can be improved in ways that would make them more influential in promoting change in the healthcare system.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disease-Based | Quality Improvement | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health Disparities Calculator External Web Site Policy

Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results, National Cancer Institute. (2010). Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc) [Computer software]. Retrieved from http://seer.cancer.gov/

Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results at the National Cancer Institute has developed a Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc), which is a statistical software designed to generate multiple summary measures to evaluate and monitor health disparities.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

American Journal of Public Health External Web Site Policy

American Public Health Association. (2010). American Journal of Public Health, 100(5). Retrieved from http://ajph.aphapublications.org/content/vol100/issue5/

The first issue of any major public health journal devoted to Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander populations, the May issue of the American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) explores an array of new research on both alarming disparities and significant successes in care.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Public Health | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Racial/Ethnic Difference in Early-Life Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity External Web Site Policy

Taveras, E. M., Gillman, M. W., Kleinman, K., Rich-Edwards, J. W., & Rifas-Shiman, S. L. (2010). Racial/ethnic difference in early-life risk factors for childhood obesity. Pediatrics, 125(4), 686-695. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2100

A team of researchers in Boston set out to examine racial/ethnic differences in early-life risk factors for childhood obesity. The study finds that racial/ethnic differences in risk factors for obesity exist prenatally and in early childhood. Racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity may be determined by factors that operate at the earliest stages of life.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement External Web Site Policy

Institute of Medicine, Subcommittee on Standardized Collection of Race/Ethnicity Data for Healthcare Quality Improvement. (2009). Race, ethnicity, and language data: standardization for health care quality improvement. Retrieved from http://iom.edu/Reports/2009/RaceEthnicityData.aspx

In its 2009 report titled Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement, the IOM recommends that healthcare providers collect and assess comprehensive patient data on their cultural and linguistic needs. Having more precise quality metrics can assist in eliminating disparities in health and healthcare.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Quality Improvement | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Improving Patient-Provider Communication: Joint Commission Standards and Federal Laws External Web Site Policy

The Joint Commission (Producer). (2009). Improving Patient-Provider Communication: Joint Commission Standards and Federal Laws [Video]. Available from http://www.jointcommission.org/

"Improving Patient-Provider Communication" is a video created by the Joint Commission along with HHS and the Office for Civil Rights as part of their efforts to eliminate racial, ethnic, and language disparities in healthcare. The video educates healthcare providers in providing language access in healthcare organizations. Language access is critical in providing safe, quality patient care.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Protection of Racial/Ethnic Minority Populations During an Influenza Pandemic External Web Site Policy

Hutchins, S. S., Fiscella, K., Levine, R. S., Ompad, D. C., & McDonald, M. (2009). Protection of racial/ethnic minority populations during an influenza pandemic. American Journal of Public Health, 99(S2), S261-S270. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.161505

This study examines the disproportionate impact of an influenza pandemic on racial and ethnic minority populations. The research recommends that pandemic interventions implement culturally competent preparedness and response that address the specific needs of racial/ethnic minority populations as well as relevant, practical, and culturally and linguistically tailored communications.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Informacion en espanol External Web Site Policy

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (n.d.). Informacion en espanol. Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/consumer/espanoix.htm

The AHRQ's website called Informacion en Espanol provides a variety of publications and other resources on healthcare issues, including audio and video, in Spanish. Informacion en Espanol includes a monthly online health advice column titled "Consejos de Salud Para Ti" ("Health Advice for You"), which provides evidence-based tips on preventive health, safe and appropriate use of medications, ways to get better healthcare, and more.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Communication | Communication and Language Assistance |

Study: Many Say Disparities Genetic External Web Site Policy

Study: many say disparities genetic. (2009, October 20). United Press International. Retrieved from http://www.upi.com/Health_News/2009/10/20/Study-Many-say-racial-disparities-genetic/UPI-80281256018232/

A study published in the Social Science Quarterly indicates that a majority of Americans support strategies to reduce healthcare disparities that are caused by social and economic status but believe that racial and ethnic health disparities are genetic. The authors note that the general public's belief that racial disparities have a genetic foundation is troubling because people will resist strategies aimed at eliminating health disparities.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Studying State Legislation of Cultural and Linguistic Competence External Web Site Policy

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2009). Studying state legislation of cultural and linguistic competence. Retrieved from http://www.rwjf.org/

The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) funded a study by the National Center for Cultural Competence at Georgetown University that assessed State efforts to integrate cultural competence into continuing education and licensure requirements for healthcare professionals. The study reveals characteristics common between those States with legislation and States with barriers to the passage of legislation, and the study offers several strategic planning ideas.

Keywords:    Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Non-Native English Speakers Face Numerous Linguistic, Cultural Barriers to Medical Care External Web Site Policy

California Healthline. (2009). Non-Native English Speakers Face Numerous Linguistic, Cultural Barriers to Medical Care [Audio report]. Retrieved from http://www.californiahealthline.org/

This is an audio report that discusses a study conducted at the University of California-Berkley. The study finds that many non-native English speakers encounter difficulties in communicating with their healthcare providers, which can lead to lower quality healthcare. The researchers interviewed several key experts, who recommend that policymakers address health access issues by investing in telemedicine-based interpretation services and by recruiting bilingual medical professionals.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Speaking the Same Language: Medical Providers Struggle to Communicate With Immigrant Patients External Web Site Policy

Barclay, E. (2009, April 21). Speaking the same language: medical providers struggle to communicate with immigrant patients. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/04/20/AR2009042002466_pf.html

This Washington Post article discusses the effect of the Washington area's high immigration rates on its healthcare providers and the quality of care offered to patients. The author describes the medical errors and discrimination that can result from inadequate language services, and she provides doctors' and patients' points of view.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

California's Emergency Preparedness Efforts for Culturally Diverse Communities: Status, Challenges and Directions for the Future External Web Site Policy

Andrulis, D., Siddiqui, N., & Purtle, J. (2009). California's emergency preparedness efforts for culturally diverse communities: status, challenges and directions for the future. Retrieved from Drexel University Center for Health Equality and HHS Office of Minority Health website: http://www.diversitypreparedness.org/

This report conducts a systematic assessment of emergency preparedness programs and initiatives for racially and ethnically diverse communities in California, examining barriers to care as well as opportunities for improvement. While this report focuses on the State of California, it provides a methodological framework that allows for similar assessments to be conducted at national, State, and local levels.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved External Web Site Policy

Brennan, V. M. (Ed.). (2009). Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. doi: 10.1353/hpu.0.0146

The May 2009 issue of the Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved offers a variety of articles that address issues of health disparities and access to care. It highlights medical education issues regarding obstacles and supports for different minority groups during the application process for medical school. It includes a section on immigrant health, which contains articles on a variety of racial and ethnic groups, including Chinese and Latinos.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health External Web Site Policy

Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (2008). Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Retrieved from the World Health Organization website: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241563703_eng.pdf

This is the final report by the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which set out to examine ways to achieve health equity around the world. The report determines that the problem of health disparities can be tackled by developing strategies to influence policies and organizations that affect entire societies. The Commission has succeeded in its goal to create a global movement to promote health equity by establishing partnerships with governments and global organizations. The Commission concludes that achieving health equity within a generation is achievable.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

National Consensus Statement on Integrating Racially and Ethnically Diverse Communities into Public Health Emergency Preparedness External Web Site Policy

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Office of Minority Health and Drexel University, Center for Health Equality National Consensus Panel on Emergency Preparedness and Cultural Diversity. (2008). National consensus statement on integrating racially and ethnically diverse communities into public health emergency preparedness. Retrieved from http://www.diversitypreparedness.org/SiteData/docs/National%20Consensus%20Statement%20%26%20Guiding%20Principles%20%26%20Panel%20List%20508/695132ab58eb36a7c2f67ba98d5a72ec/National%20Consensus%20Statement%20%26%20Guiding%20Principles%20%26%20Panel%20List%20508.pdf

This statement provides a framework for integrating racially and ethnically diverse communities into emergency preparedness. It was developed by the National Consensus Panel on Emergency Preparedness and Cultural Diversity, an initiative of the Drexel University School of Public Health's Center for Health Equality and the HHS Office of Minority Health.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Health Care: A Chartbook External Web Site Policy

Mead, H., Cartwright-Smith, L., Jones, K., Ramos, C., Woods, K., & Siegel, B. (2008). Racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. health care: a chartbook. Retrieved from the Commonwealth Fund website: http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/media/Files/Publications/Chartbook/2008/Mar/Racial%20and%20Ethnic%20Disparities%20in%20U%20S%20%20Health%20Care%20%20A%20Chartbook/Mead_racialethnicdisparities_chartbook_1111%20pdf.pdf

This chartbook provides a framework through which policymakers, teachers, researchers, and practitioners may understand health disparities and formulate solutions. The chartbook presents data regarding health disparities, including their nature and etiology, and seeks to provoke thought about why disparities exist and how they can be eliminated.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Educating Physicians to Provide Culturally Competent, Patient-Centered Care External Web Site Policy

Like, R. C., Barrett, T. J., & Moon, J. (2008, Summer). Educating physicians to provide culturally competent, patient-centered care. Perspectives: A View of Family Medicine in New Jersey, 7(2), 10-20. Retrieved from http://www.njafp.org/publications/archive

This article in a New Jersey family medicine publication discusses the history of, rationale for, and effects of the legislation in New Jersey enacted in March 2005 that requires all physicians to complete cultural competency training for re-licensure and mandates the inclusion of relevant curricular content in the State's medical schools. It also outlines the development of cultural competency in legislation throughout the country on both State and national levels.

Keywords:    Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health Disparities: Barriers to a Culture of Preparedness External Web Site Policy

Honore, R. L. (2008). Health Disparities: Barriers to a Culture of Preparedness. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 14(6), S5-S7. doi: 10.1097/01.PHH.0000338381.29071.d6

This article discusses the ways that inequalities in health and healthcare present a barrier to the United States' disaster preparedness and response activities. The article sets out to show that individuals, communities, the private sector, nonprofits, and all levels of government need to work together to reduce health inequalities to improve the Nation's level of preparedness and response to a crisis.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Journal of Public Health Management & Practice External Web Site Policy

Graham, G. N., Honore, P. A., & Beadle, M. (Eds.). (2008). Supplement 6. In Novick, L. F. (Journal Ed.) Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 14(6), S1-S87. Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/jphmp/pages/toc.aspx?year=2008&issue=11001

This supplemental issue of the Journal of Public Health Management & Practice is dedicated to health disparities. It contains articles on a wide variety of topics relating to health disparities and includes an editorial from Dr. Garth Graham, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Minority Health.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Integrating Immigrant Families in Emergency Response, Relief and Rebuilding Efforts External Web Site Policy

Wang, T., & Yasui, L. (2008). Integrating immigrant families in emergency response, relief and rebuilding efforts. The Annie E. Casey Foundation and Grantmakers Concerned with Immigrants and Refugees. Retrieved from the Grantmakers Concerned with Immigrants and Refugees website: http://www.gcir.org/system/files/Integrating%20Immigrant%20Families%20in%20Emergency%20Response%2C%20Relief%20and%20Rebuilding%20Efforts.pdf

This report examines the disparities faced by immigrants and limited-English-proficiency communities during times of disaster. It focuses on emergency management at the local level since, oftentimes, the local government is the first on the scene during a disaster event.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Demographics and Health Care Access and Utilization of Limited-English-Proficient and English-Proficient Hispanics

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2008). Research findings #28: demographics and health care access and utilization of limited-English-proficient and English-proficient Hispanics. Retrieved from http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb/data_files/publications/rf28/rf28.pdf

Using data from the 2004 Household Component of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, researchers examined the use and access of healthcare among Hispanic adults with limited English proficiency as well as English-proficient Hispanic adults. In comparison to English-proficient Hispanic adults, it was found that limited-English-proficiency Hispanic adults are more likely to be less educated, have a lower income, be unemployed, be without private insurance or uninsured, use health services less often, and have a lower satisfaction rate with the healthcare they receive.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Public health preparedness: Mobilizing state by state

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response. (2008). Public health preparedness: mobilizing state by state. A CDC report on the public health emergency preparedness cooperating agreement. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/

The report details the progress of States in preparedness and response issues. This report is intended to serve as a first step in detailing collaboration efforts in preparedness between local, State, and Federal governments. National and State-specific data are presented for all 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Public Health | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

National Resource Center External Web Site Policy

Drexel University School of Public Health's Center for Public Health Readiness & Communication, & U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Office of Minority Health. National resource center on advancing emergency preparedness for culturally diverse communities. (2011, June 10). Retrieved from http://www.diversitypreparedness.org/

The National Resource Center is a database of resources on the public health preparedness needs of diverse communities. The National Resource Center aims to serve as a clearinghouse for those stakeholders who are working to eliminate disparities among minority communities before, during, and following disasters.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Education & Training | Public Health | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health Disparities Report 2008: A County-Level Look at Health Outcomes for Minorities in Georgia

Georgia Department of Community Health Office of Health Improvement and Minority Health Advisory Council. (2008). Health disparities report 2008: a county-level look at health outcomes for minorities in Georgia. Retrieved from http://dch.georgia.gov/vgn/images/portal/cit_1210/5/49/111684019Georgia_Health_Equity_Initiative_
Health_Disparities_Report_2008.pdf

The Georgia Health Disparities Report examines minority health outcomes in each of the counties throughout the State of Georgia. The findings illustrate the need for additional collaborative efforts to truly reduce disparities in health in Georgia. One of the goals of the report is to illustrate what practices are working in certain counties so that others may adapt them to fit in their own counties.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Population-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Summary of state law requirements addressing language needs in health care External Web Site Policy

Perkins, J., & Youdelman, M. (2008). Summary of state law requirements addressing language needs in health care. Retrieved from the National Health Law Program website: http://www.healthlaw.org/images/stories/issues/nhelp.lep.state.law.chart.final.0319.pdf

The National Health Law Program published a report detailing all existing State law requirements relating to language access needs in healthcare settings. Each State's data are presented in a unique chart with citation to the legislation, a brief description, and coding that indicates the subject matter being addressed.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Communication | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Evaluating interventions to reduce health care disparities: An RWJF program External Web Site Policy

Schlotthauer, A. E., Badler, A., Cook, S. C., Perez, D. J., & Chin, M. H. (2008). Evaluating interventions to reduce health care disparities: An RWJF program. Health Affairs 27(2), 568-573. Retrieved from http://www.rwjf.org/

The RWJF's Finding Answers Program provides funding for programs seeking to reduce and eliminate healthcare disparities. This article, published in the March/April 2008 issue of Health Affairs, provides an overview of some of the current interventions that have the potential to reduce or eliminate health disparities in real-world applications.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health care in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: Health care in New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina External Web Site Policy

Shartzer, A. (Author), & kaiserEDU.org (Producer). (2008). Health care in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: Health care in New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina [Video tutorial]. Retrieved from http://www.kaiseredu.org/tutorials/katrina/player.html

This is a narrated tutorial from the Kaiser Family Foundation that discusses the state of healthcare in New Orleans both before Hurricane Katrina and following it. Much of the information presented discusses the effect that Katrina had on low income individuals, many of whom are minorities.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Population-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Identifying and Evaluating Equity Provisions in State Health Care Reform External Web Site Policy

Smedley, B., Alvarez, B., Panares, R., Fish-Parcham, C., & Adland, S. (2008). Identifying and evaluating equity provisions in state health care reform (Volume 90). Retrieved from The Commonwealth Fund website: http://www.commonwealthfund.org/

This report examines barriers to healthcare primarily among racial and ethnic minorities, immigrants, and those who are limited English proficient through the lens of insurance and State-level policies and reforms. The report evaluates existing or proposed policies in five States-Massachusetts, Washington, California, Illinois, and Pennsylvania. It also identifies existing State-level policies for equal access to care.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Communication | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Ready or not? Protecting the public's health from diseases, disasters, and bioterrorism, 2010 External Web Site Policy

Trust for America's Health, & The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2010). Ready or not 2010: protecting the public's health from diseases, disasters, and bioterrorism. Retrieved from the Trust for America's Health website: http://www.healthyamericans.org/assets/files/TFAH2010ReadyorNot%20FINAL.pdf

Since 2003, Trust for America's Health has been measuring the Nation's emergency health preparedness efforts to evaluate what is being done at the Federal, State, and local levels. This eighth annual Ready or Not? report regarding the United States' level of preparedness for disasters, bioterrorism threats, and disease epidemics indicates that, while important progress has been made in the Nation's public health preparedness, efforts need to continue, and much remains to be done.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

The medical tongue: U.S. laws and policies on language access. External Web Site Policy

Youdelman, M. (2008). The medical tongue: U.S. laws and policies on language access. Health Affairs, 27(2), 424-433. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.27.2.424

Despite many Federal- and State-level laws regarding language access services, language barriers in healthcare are still prevalent for many individuals with limited English proficiency. The existing laws are not always sufficiently implemented or enforced. This article examines the current legislation and makes suggestions for improving language access for limited-English-proficiency individuals through a variety of lenses, including implementation and enforcement, funding, education, interpreters and translators, and accountability.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Public Health | Government | Communication | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

DiversityRx: Improving Health Care in a Diverse World External Web Site Policy

TIDES. (2011). Diversity Rx: Improving Health Care in a Diverse World. Retrieved from http://diversityrx.org/

DiversityRx informs, educates, and supports healthcare providers, policymakers, researchers, and advocates who work to improve quality of care for minority, immigrant, and indigenous communities.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Patients & Consumers | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Guidance for Integrating Culturally Diverse Communities into Planning for and Responding to Emergencies: A Toolkit External Web Site Policy

Andrulis, D. P., Siddiqui, N. J., & Purtle, J. (2011). Guidance for integrating culturally diverse communities into planning for and responding to emergencies: a toolkit. Retrieved from the National Resource Center on Advancing Emergency Preparedness for Culturally Diverse Communities website: http://www.texashealthinstitute.org/files/OMHDiversityPreparednessToolkit.pdf

This toolkit from the Office of Minority Health assists agencies in working with diverse communities to address a broader set of priorities to improve health and quality of life that are central to effective emergency event strategies and actions. It offers recommendations, resources, and practical strategies for engaging and integrating culturally diverse communities across emergency planning and response actions.

Keywords:    Tools | Government | Public Health | Profession-Based | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

State Works to Improve Indian Health External Web Site Policy

Uken, C. (2011, January 8). State works to improve Indian health. The Billings Gazette. Retrieved from http://billingsgazette.com/news/state-and-regional/montana/article_efcf15bc-85d1-5af5-b396-eac182a2d146.html

This article details Montana's comprehensive efforts to address health disparities suffered by the State's American Indian population. Montana is implementing culturally competent services and partnering with tribal governments to improve the health of this population.

Keywords:    Population-Based | Policy | Profession-Based | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Quality Improvement | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

With Poem, Broaching the Topic of Death External Web Site Policy

Daitz, B. (2011, January 24). With poem, broaching the topic of death. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

This article presents an Arizona hospital's efforts to provide culturally and linguistically appropriate geriatric and end-of-life services to its American Indian population.

Keywords:    Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Multicultural HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis Service External Web Site Policy

A public site where people can access multilingual information on HIV and Hepatitis C.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Clinical & Mental Health | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disease-Based | Disparities | Education & Training | Government | Health Literacy | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Patients & Consumers | Policy | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Public Health | Quality Improvement | Research | Tools |

Holistic Honu Wellness Center - Bridging the Gap between Traditional Healing and Western Medicine External Web Site Policy

The Holistic Honu Wellness Center is a very small health and wellness center in Berkeley, California where they address the issue of Native Hawaiian health disparities by acting as a conduit between traditional healing practices and the western medical communities everyday. Their current program has been the development and execution of a culturally competent education curriculum designed to address health disparity issues within Native Hawaiian communities that consists of four distinct levels.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance & Leadership | Clinical & Mental Health | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disparities | Education & Training | Health Literacy | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Public Health | Quality Improvement | Research | Tools |

Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competency, and Patient/Family-Centered Care for LGBT Community External Web Site Policy

This new field guide from The Joint Commission urges U.S. hospitals to create a more welcoming, safe and inclusive environment that contributes to improved health care quality for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients and their families. The guide, Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient-and Family-Centered Care for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Community: A Field Guide, was developed with support from The California Endowment.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance & Leadership | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disparities | Education & Training | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Patients & Consumers | Policy | Population-Based | Public Health | Quality Improvement | Research | Tools |

Cancers External Web Site Policy

Detection

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Communication | Disease-Based | Education & Training | Health Literacy | Public Health | Research |

Reexamining LGBT Healthcare External Web Site Policy

Out of the box LGBT cultural competence training, including 10-minute original video, slides and a manual

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance & Leadership | Clinical & Mental Health | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disease-Based | Disparities | Education & Training | Government | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Public Health |

CDC Diabetes website

CDC's Division of Diabetes Translation translates diabetes research into daily practice to understand the impact of the disease, influence health outcomes, and improve access to quality health care. Resources are available in Spanish as well.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Disease-Based | Education & Training | Government | Health Literacy | Patients & Consumers | Public Health | Research |

Cultural Competence Education for Students in Medicine and Public Health: Report of an Expert Panel External Web Site Policy

This report contains recommendations on cultural competence that rests at the nexus of both medicine and public health. Based on the work of an expert panel convened jointly by the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Association of Schools of Public Health, the report highlights findings by educators in medicine and public health on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes the disciplines should understand about one another.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Clinical & Mental Health | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Public Health |

Unnatural causes: Is inequality making us sick? External Web Site Policy

Adelman, L. (Creator, Producer). (2008). Unnatural causes: Is inequality making us sick? [Documentary series]. United States: California Newsreel with Vital Pictures.

This seven-part series, originally aired on PBS, investigates such topics as how the distribution of power, wealth, and resources shapes opportunities for health; whether racism can affect birth outcomes; the decline in health of Latino immigrants with increased time in the United States; the connection of diabetes with empowerment and oppression in Native American communities; and the differential effects of layoffs on health in Sweden and the United States. An episode concerned with geographic influences on health is available with Lao, Hmong, Vietnamese, Mandarin, or Cantonese audio.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Public Health |

Building quality & equitable health care systems External Web Site Policy

California Pan-Ethnic Health Network. (2010). Building quality & equitable health care systems. (Conference report). Retrieved from http://www.cpehn.org/pdfs/Building%20Quality%20and%20Equitable%20Health%20Care%20Systems%2010-10.pdf

A report of the proceedings of a conference held June 7-9, 2010. Topics of discussion included language access; cultural competency; reduction of health disparities; the collection and use of race, ethnicity, and language data; workforce diversity and workforce development; patient centeredness; and community engagement.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Quality Improvement | Public Health |

Building a culturally competent organization: The quest for equity in health care External Web Site Policy

Health Research & Educational Trust, Institute for Diversity in Health Management (2011). Building a culturally competent organization: The quest for equity in health care. Retrieved from http://www.hret.org/quality/projects/resources/cultural-competency.pdf

Explores the concept of cultural competency in health care organizations as an essential means of reducing racial and ethnic disparities. Recommends the collection of data on race/ethnicity and language preference, the identification and reporting of disparities, community involvement, the development of culturally competent disease management programs, and an increase in the diversity of the workforce, including the creation of mentoring programs. Includes self-assessment checklists and case studies of high-performing hospitals.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Public Health |

Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care External Web Site Policy

Institute of Medicine, Committee on Understanding and Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care, Board on Health Sciences Policy. (2003). B. D. Smedley, A. Y. Stith, & A. R. Nelson (Eds.). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10260&page=R1

This book explores how racial and ethnic minorities experience the health care environment, how treatment disparities can arise in health care systems, and how aspects of the clinical interaction could contribute to disparity. Attitudes, expectations, and behavior - of patients and providers alike - are examined. Based on their findings, the committee makes a number of recommendations for legal, regulatory, and policy changes; health systems interventions; patient and cross-cultural education efforts; data collection and monitoring; and research.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Policy | Public Health | Research |

International Society for Urban Health External Web Site Policy

International Society for Urban Health. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.isuh.org/

The society is devoted to "the study of disease in urban areas and the effects of urbanization on health." Links are provided to conferences, resources, and the Journal of Urban Health.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Public Health |

Diversity and inclusion 2020 External Web Site Policy

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (n.d.). Diversity and inclusion 2020. Retrieved from http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/bin/s/x/diversity_and_inclusion.pdf

This brief document outlines Johns Hopkins Medicine's plans to create an inclusive environment for all employees, patients, and the communities from which those patients are drawn. Specific goals are listed, with rationales and suggested measures of progress.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Public Health |

Diversity and inclusion at Johns Hopkins: Commitment, passion, engagement External Web Site Policy

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (n.d.). Diversity and inclusion at Johns Hopkins: Commitment, passion, engagement. Retrieved from http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/diversity/index.html

This site provides a wide variety of information on Johns Hopkins' Diversity and Inclusion Initiative. Included are an overview of the program, detail on the strategic plan, personal stories, videos, and charts showing the relative ethnicity of faculty (divided by academic rank), students, and the patient community.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Public Health |

Johns Hopkins Urban Health Institute External Web Site Policy

Johns Hopkins University. (2012). Johns Hopkins Urban Health Institute. Retrieved from http://urbanhealth.jhu.edu/

Johns Hopkins' Urban Health Institute is, according to its website, "the starting point for forging true University and community partnerships in health care, education and community planning, with all partners working to change the trajectory for the children, youth and families of East Baltimore." Included on the site are a community services locator, local statistical data, news of university-community collaborative projects, the university-sponsored Henrietta Lacks Award to local community organizations, a newsletter archive, news of upcoming events, videos of symposia, a Listserv, and an invitation to citizens to submit notice of upcoming local events.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Public Health |

Planning health promotion and disease prevention programs in multicultural populations External Web Site Policy

Kline, M. V. (1999). Planning health promotion and disease prevention programs in multicultural populations. In R. M. Huff & M. V. Kline (Eds.), Promoting health in multicultural populations: A handbook for practitioners (pp. 73-102). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disease-Based | Public Health |

Making CLAS happen: Six areas for action External Web Site Policy

Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Office of Health Equity. (2009). Making CLAS happen: Six areas for action. Retrieved from http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/provider/guidelines-resources/services-planning/workforce-development/health-equity/clas/making-clas-happen.html

The Massachusetts Department of Public Health identified challenges faced by public health professionals serving minority populations and developed this guide to the implementation of CLAS Standards throughout all aspects of an organization. The "six areas for action" are to (1) foster cultural competence, (2) build community partnerships, (3) collect and share diversity data, (4) benchmark, (5) reflect and respect diversity, and (6) ensure language access. Each chapter includes tools, resource lists, and case studies.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Government | Public Health |

Impacting health disparities through community outreach: Utilizing the CLEAN look (culture, literacy, education, assessment, and networking)

Meade, C., Menard, J., Martinez, D., & Calvo, A. (2007). Impacting health disparities through community outreach: Utilizing the CLEAN look (culture, literacy, education, assessment, and networking). Cancer Control, 14(1), 70-77. Retrieved from http://www.moffitt.org/CCJRoot/v14n1/pdf/70.pdf

The authors discuss the importance of considering culture and literacy in the development of community outreach programs for medically underserved populations and describe the application of the CLEAN Look checklist in a breast cancer outreach effort aimed at Haitian-American women.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Disease-Based | Public Health | Research | Tools |

National Health Law Program External Web Site Policy

National Health Law Program. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.healthlaw.org/

The National Health Law Program is a public interest law firm working to advance access to high-quality health care and to protect the legal rights of underserved and low-income individuals. The issues addressed include (broadly) Medicare and Medicaid, children's health, reproductive health, language access, health disparities, court access, government accountability, and health reform. The website offers links to publications, access to an advocacy Listserv, and news of NHeLP's activities.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Policy | Public Health |

The National Health Plan Collaborative toolkit External Web Site Policy

National Health Plan Collaborative. (2008). The National Health Plan Collaborative toolkit. Retrieved from Robert Wood Johnson Foundation website: http://www.rwjf.org/qualityequality/product.jsp?id=33960

This toolkit of resources, lessons, best practices, and case studies, drawn from the efforts of the National Health Plan Collaborative (11 health insurance plans in partnership with private and public sector organizations), is offered as a means toward the improvement of health care quality for racial and ethnic minority populations. Included are videos and sample tools, forms, policies, and resources for implementation.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Quality Improvement | Public Health | Tools |

National stakeholder strategy for achieving health equity

National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities. (2011). National stakeholder strategy for achieving health equity. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health website: http://www.minorityhealth.hhs.gov/npa/templates/content.aspx?lvl=1&lvlid=33&ID=286

This document offers a plan for eliminating health disparities through cooperative and strategic action. It is part of an effort to provide "visible and accountable federal leadership while also promoting collaborations among communities, states, tribes, the private sector and other stakeholders to more effectively reduce health disparities." It is an effort, also, to establish "a common set of goals and objectives" for the public and private sector organizations.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Government | Public Health |

Reflections on the CLAS Standards: Best practices, innovations and horizons

Putsch, R., SenGupta, I., Sampson, A., & Tervalon, M. (2003). Reflections on the CLAS Standards: Best practices, innovations and horizons. Retrieved from The Cross Cultural Health Care Program website: http://www.xculture.org/files/CLAS.Standards.Report.pdf.pdf

On the basis of a literature review, interviews, and on-site visits, a number of best practices were identified in the implementation of the CLAS Standards. Among the findings are that best-practicing organizations tailor their programs and services to the needs of the communities and populations they serve; they engage in a combination of health, community, and social services; policies fostering culturally and linguistically appropriate services are woven into the organization at all levels; and meaningful relationships with the community are seen as critical to achieving equity. Five organizations are profiled in detail.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Government | Public Health | Research |

CLAS Standards implementation tips External Web Site Policy

QSource, Underserved Quality Improvement Organization Support Center. (2005). CLAS Standards implementation tips. Retrieved from http://www.qsource.org/uqiosc/CLAS%20Standards%20Strategies%5B7AUG-2005%5D.pdf

This concise document, addressed to health care organizations, provides implementation strategies and suggested steps toward achievement of provider adherence to the original 14 CLAS Standards.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Quality Improvement | Public Health | Tools |

CLAS A-Z: A practical guide for implementing the National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) in health care External Web Site Policy

Salimbene, S. (2001). CLAS A-Z: A practical guide for implementing the National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) in health care. Retrieved from the Office of Minority Health website: http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/assets/pdf/checked/CLAS_a2z.pdf

This step-by-step guide includes a minimum of discursive text, being largely in the form of downloadable checklists, forms, and syllabi that can be adapted to an organization's particular needs.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Government | Public Health | Tools |

California take on "promotora" model of community outreach a success External Web Site Policy

Savinar, R. (n.d.). California take on "promotora" model of community outreach a success. Retrieved from Proyecto Vision website: http://www.proyectovision.net/english/news/13/promotoras.html

Promotoras are persons acting as liaisons between their communities and health and social service organizations. This brief article notes some of the history, current successes in California, and possibilities for the use of promotoras in the future.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Public Health |

The George Washington Institute for Spirituality and Health External Web Site Policy

The George Washington Institute for Spirituality and Health. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.gwish.org/

The George Washington Institute for Spirituality and Health is affiliated with George Washington University. The institute "is working toward a more compassionate system of healthcare by restoring the heart and humanity of medicine through research, education and policy work focused on bringing increased attention to the spiritual needs of patients, families and healthcare professionals." The site includes recommendations and tools for taking a spiritual history, a resource center, and information on educational programs and research projects.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Education & Training | Public Health |

Advancing effective communication, cultural competence, and patient- and family-centered care for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community: A field guide External Web Site Policy

The Joint Commission. (2011). Advancing effective communication, cultural competence, and patient- and family-centered care for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community: A field guide. Retrieved from http://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/18/LGBTFieldGuide.pdf

In order to form a better understanding of the needs of LGBT patients, the Joint Commission invited representatives of professional organizations, advocacy groups, and other stakeholders to a day-long meeting to discuss communication, cultural competence, and patient-centered care as they relate to the LGBT community. The Joint Commission's Roadmap for Hospitals provided a framework for the discussion. Covered are issues of leadership; provision of care, treatment, and services; the workforce; data collection and use; and patient, family, and community engagement.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Population-Based | Governance & Leadership | Public Health | Tools |

Transcultural Nursing Society External Web Site Policy

Transcultural Nursing Society. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.tcns.org/

The stated goals of the society include the advancement of cultural competence for nurses worldwide, the support of scholarship, and the building of a body of substantive knowledge in the field of transcultural nursing. Links to the Journal of Transcultural Nursing, conferences, and relevant Web pages of other organizations are provided.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Profession-Based | Public Health |

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/lgbthealth

This CDC Web page provides links to information on and resources for some of the health issues and inequities affecting LGBT communities. Information is also available for health care providers, public health professionals, and students.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Population-Based | Government | Public Health |

HHS action plan to reduce racial and ethnic disparities: A nation free of disparities in health and health care

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). HHS action plan to reduce racial and ethnic disparities: A nation free of disparities in health and health care. Retrieved from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/npa/files/Plans/HHS/HHS_Plan_complete.pdf

In November 2010, Secretary Kathleen Sebelius charged the Department of Health and Human Services with the development of an action plan to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities. The plan is operational across all agencies and institutes within the department. This document outlining the action plan is organized according to five overarching goals (to be accomplished by 2015), with strategies and actions outlined for each.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Government | Public Health |

The Ethical Force Program External Web Site Policy

American Medical Association. (2012). The Ethical Force Program. Retrieved from http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/medical-ethics/the-ethical-force-program.page

The Ethical Force Program includes patients, practitioners, purchasers, and representatives of health plans and government and accrediting agencies. This group is responsible for creating, testing, and disseminating performance measures on matters of ethical concern. Topics addressed include privacy and confidentiality, patient-centered communication, and access to health care. The Ethical Force Program is also responsible for the Communications Climate Assessment Toolkit, available through this site.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Public Health |

Improving quality and achieving equity: A guide for hospital leaders External Web Site Policy

Betancourt, J., Green, A., & King, R. (2008). Improving quality and achieving equity: A guide for hospital leaders. Retrieved from Massachusetts General Hospital, The Disparities Solutions Center website: http://www2.massgeneral.org/disparitiessolutions/z_files/disparities%20leadership%20guide_final.pdf

This guide reviews the evidence for racial and ethnic disparities in health care; discusses means to address them, focusing on quality, cost, risk management, and accreditation; examines model practices; and recommends a set of activities and resources for leaders in all types of hospitals and for others within hospitals who wish to make a case for addressing disparities. It includes a review of the relevant literature, case studies of innovative approaches, and interviews with hospital leaders.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disparities | Quality Improvement | Governance & Leadership | Public Health |

Institute Resource Center External Web Site Policy

Institute for Diversity in Health Management. (2008). Institute Resource Center. Retrieved from http://www.diversityconnection.org/diversityconnection/membership/Institute-Resource-Center.jsp?fll=S12

Contains downloadable information, news, studies, and data designed to help hospitals diversify their workforces and serve their diverse patient populations.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Public Health | Research |

Does cultural competency training of health professionals improve patient outcomes? A systematic review and proposed algorithm for future research

Lie, D. A., Lee-Rey, E., Gomez, A., Bereknyei, S., & Braddock, C. H., 3rd. (2011). Does cultural competency training of health professionals improve patient outcomes? A systematic review and proposed algorithm for future research. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26(3), 317-325. doi:10.1007/s11606-010-1529-0

The authors conducted an extensive literature search for studies linking cultural competency training of health professionals to clinical outcomes. Of the few studies found, the "quality was low to moderate with none of high quality; most studies did not adequately control for potentially confounding variables." The authors propose an algorithm to be used in the design and evaluation of curricula that "examine patient outcomes as specific endpoints."

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Quality Improvement | Public Health |

Educating clinicians about cultural competence and disparities in health and health care External Web Site Policy

Like, R. C. (2011). Educating clinicians about cultural competence and disparities in health and health care. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 31(3), 196-206. doi:10.1002/chp.20127

The author provides an overview of legislative, accreditation, professional, and policy initiatives related to health care disparities and cultural competence and reviews the status of continuing medical education offerings in these areas. He examines whether the CME profession itself needs to become more culturally competent in the development, implementation, and evaluation of programs.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disparities | Policy | Public Health |

Safe practices for better healthcare-2009 update: A consensus report External Web Site Policy

National Quality Forum. (2009). Safe practices for better healthcare-2009 update: A consensus report. Retrieved from http://www.qualityforum.org/Publications/2009/03/Safe_Practices_for_Better_Healthcare–2009_Update.aspx

The updated report includes a set of 34 safe practices, endorsed by the National Quality Forum, with suggested implementation approaches and supporting evidence. Safe Practice 7 says that patients and, as appropriate, families "should receive timely, transparent, and clear communication." Clear communication is addressed in depth in Chapter 5 of the full report. Chapter 9 addresses issues important in the provision of patient-centered care.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Public Health | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

A systematic review of the methodologic rigor of studies evaluating cultural competence training of health professionals External Web Site Policy

Price, E. G., Beach, M. C., Gary, T. L., Robinson, K. A., Gozu, A., Palacio, A., ... Cooper, L. A. (2005). A systematic review of the methodologic rigor of studies evaluating cultural competence training of health professionals. Academic Medicine, 80, 578-586. Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/academicmedicine/Fulltext/2005/06000/A_Systematic_Review_of_the_Methodological_Rigor_of.13.aspx

The authors examined the methodological rigor of studies published in English from 1980 to 2003 that evaluate cultural competence training. Studies were appraised for their representativeness, description of the intervention, bias and confounding, outcome assessment, and analytic approach. The authors conclude that a lack of rigor "limits the evidence for the impact of cultural competence training on minority health care quality" and that more attention should be paid "to the proper design, evaluation, and reporting of these training programs."

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Public Health | Research |

Cultural competency training and performance reports to improve diabetes care for black patients: A cluster randomized, controlled trial External Web Site Policy

Sequist, T. D., Fitzmaurice, G. M., Marshall, R., Shaykevich, S., Marston, A., Safran, D. G., & Ayanian, J. Z. (2010). Cultural competency training and performance reports to improve diabetes care for black patients: A cluster randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 152(1), 40-46.

The authors evaluated the effect of cultural competency training and performance feedback for 124 primary care physicians treating a population of approximately 7,500 diabetic patients. They find that physician awareness of racial disparities in diabetes care increased but that, overall, clinical outcomes did not improve.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Quality Improvement | Disease-Based | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Public Health |

In the nation's compelling interest: Ensuring diversity in the health-care workforce External Web Site Policy

Smedley, B. D., Stith-Butler, A., & Bristow, L. R. (2004). In the nation's compelling interest: Ensuring diversity in the health-care workforce. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10885&page=1

This book makes a case for increasing the number of individuals from currently underrepresented minorities in the health care workforce. Examined are school admissions policies and practices, educational costs and financing, accreditation, institutional climate, community benefit, and mechanisms to garner support for institutional diversity policies.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Public Health | Policy |

Missing persons: Minorities in the health professions External Web Site Policy

The Sullivan Commission on Diversity in the Healthcare Workforce. (2004). Missing persons: Minorities in the health professions. Retrieved from http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media-relations/SullivanReport.pdf

The Sullivan Commission was established in 2003 under a grant from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation to Duke University and was composed of health, business, higher education, legal, and legislative experts. The commission held a series of hearings across the country to examine the causes of the ethnic imbalance among the nation's medical, dental, and nursing workforce as compared with the country's population at large. The report integrates findings from testimony heard at these hearings and from the health sciences literature. Thirty-seven recommendations are put forward to address the root causes of minority underrepresentation in the health professions.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Public Health | Policy |

Training and continuing education online: Health literacy for public health professionals

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Training and continuing education online: Health literacy for public health professionals (web-based) [Online training course summary]. Retrieved from http://www2a.cdc.gov/tceonline/registration/detailpage.asp?res_id=2074

This online course is intended to educate public health professionals and students on the importance of health literacy and the role they play in providing health information and promoting health literacy in the community. Continuing education credit is available.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Health Literacy | Government | Public Health |

Validation of an organizational communication climate assessment toolkit External Web Site Policy

Wynia, M. K., Johnson, M., McCoy, T. P., Griffin, L. P., & Osborn, C. Y. (2010). Validation of an organizational communication climate assessment toolkit. American Journal of Medical Quality, 25(6), 436-443. doi:10.1177/1062860610368428

The authors report findings from a prospective multisite validation study of an organizational communication climate assessment toolkit and find that most of the nine communication domains assessed "were significant predictors of patient-reported quality of care and trust." They conclude that these tools "provide a valid empirical assessment of organizational communication climate" in these domains.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Public Health |

Integrating literacy, culture, and language to improve health care quality for diverse populations

Andrulis, D. P., & Brach, C. (2007). Integrating literacy, culture, and language to improve health care quality for diverse populations. American Journal of Health Behavior, 31, S122-S133. Retrieved from http://www.cpehn.org/pdfs/Integrating%20Literace%20Paper%20-%20Andrulis.pdf

This article discusses the importance of an integrated approach by providers and organizations to address literacy, culture and language. The authors find that strategies aimed at improving health literacy are very often distinct from those addressing cultural and linguistic diversity. They assert that this lack of integration results in health care that is unresponsive to the needs of some vulnerable groups.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Health Literacy | Quality Improvement | Public Health |

Low health literacy and health outcomes: An updated systematic review External Web Site Policy

Berkman, N. D., Sheridan, S. L., Donahue, K. E., Halpern, D. J., & Crotty, K. (2011). Low health literacy and health outcomes: An updated systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine, 155(2), 97-107.

In a review of the medical, allied health, and psychological literature, the authors found 96 studies of good-to-fair quality of health outcomes affected by low health literacy or numeracy. They found low health literacy to be consistently associated with increased hospitalizations, greater use of emergency services, fewer vaccinations or mammograms, and, among the elderly, poorer overall health and higher mortality. No conclusions were possible regarding numeracy because of the limited number of studies (22 articles since 1966).

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Health Literacy | Public Health |

Best practice recommendations for hospital-based interpreter services External Web Site Policy

Commonwealth of Massachusetts Executive Office of Health and Human Services, Massachusetts Department of Public Health. (2004). Best practice recommendations for hospital-based interpreter services. Retrieved from http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/docs/dph/health-equity/best-practices.pdf

The Massachusetts Department of Public Health, in consultation with a broad array of organizations within the state, has sought to identify the components of an optimal interpreter services program for hospitals. Some characteristics were found to be common to all successful programs: that they are structured rather than ad hoc, with written policies and procedures; include regular and systematic review of community language needs and facility resources; have specific training and competency protocols for interpreters and providers; include a means of monitoring and evaluation; and offer a delivery system appropriate to the needs of those served.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Government | Governance & Leadership | Public Health |

Pediatricians' use of language services for families with limited English proficiency External Web Site Policy

Kuo, D. Z., O'Connor, K. G., Flores, G., & Minkovitz, C. S. (2007). Pediatricians' use of language services for families with limited English proficiency. Pediatrics 119(4), e920-e27. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-1508.

The authors' objective was to study pediatricians' use of language services and the characteristics of the practice and the state associated with the use of these services. Bilingual family members and bilingual staff were the most frequently reported language services. Forty percent of respondents use professional interpreters; 35 percent supply translated written materials. Those in small and rural practices or in states having a large proportion of persons with limited English skills tend to use professional interpreters less often. Pediatricians in states with third-party reimbursement for language services report more frequent use of professional interpreters.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Public Health | Research |

Responding to the language challenge: Kaiser Permanente's approach

Meyers, K. Tang, G., & Fernandez, A. (2009). Responding to the language challenge: Kaiser Permanente's approach. The Permanente Journal, 13(3), 77-83. Retrieved from http://www.thepermanentejournal.org/files/Summer2009/language_challenge.pdf

The authors outline the history of Kaiser Permanente's efforts to develop linguistically and culturally appropriate care and services with the expectation that the lessons derived from an understanding of the approaches taken, the barriers encountered, and the decision-making processes and drivers may guide other health systems, policymakers, or insurers to implement appropriate and effective language services.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Public Health | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

The high costs of language barriers in medical malpractice External Web Site Policy

Quan, K., & Lynch, J. (2010). The high costs of language barriers in medical malpractice. Retrieved from National Health Law Program website: http://www.healthlaw.org/images/stories/High_Costs_of_Language_Barriers_in_Malpractice.pdf

The authors note that, in 2008, nearly 20 percent of people living in the United States spoke a language other than English at home. In the Western U.S., the figure rose to 32 percent, and, in California, to 42 percent. Of those populations, more than 40 percent spoke English "less than very well." This study examines the malpractice claims of one insurer, across four states, in which language barriers may have had an effect on patients' health outcomes. Topics covered in the course of the analysis include, broadly, failure to provide competent interpreters, defective informed consent and lack of written translations, inadequate documentation, and allegations of discrimination. The authors conclude with recommendations for insurance carriers and for providers.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Policy | Public Health |

Shared decision making when an interpreter is needed: A case study with Latino men at risk for prostate cancer External Web Site Policy

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (n.d.). Shared decision making when an interpreter is needed: A case study with Latino men at risk for prostate cancer (Grant details). Retrieved from http://www.rwjf.org/grants/grant.jsp?id=63830

This project was designed to develop measures specific to interpreter-mediated shared decision-making and to produce easy-to-use tools for use by health care providers, interpreters, or patients.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Disease-Based | Population-Based | Patients & Consumers | Public Health |

Advancing effective communication, cultural competence, and patient- and family-centered care: A roadmap for hospitals External Web Site Policy

The Joint Commission. (2010). Advancing effective communication, cultural competence, and patient- and family-centered care: A roadmap for hospitals. Retrieved from http://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/6/ARoadmapforHospitalsfinalversion727.pdf

This monograph from the Joint Commission is intended to help hospitals to make effective communication, cultural competence, and patient- and family-centered care part of their daily operations. The chapters present issues and examples related to admission, patient assessment, treatment, end-of-life care, discharge and transfer, and organizational readiness. The various appendices contain a checklist of practices designed to improve communication, cultural competence, and patient- and family-centered care; Joint Commission requirements; laws and regulations; and a guide to relevant resources.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Governance & Leadership | Quality Improvement | Tools | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health |

Health literacy online: A guide to writing and designing easy-to-use health web sites

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2010). Health literacy online: A guide to writing and designing easy-to-use health web sites. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov/healthliteracyonline

This guide, "written for Web designers, content specialists, and other public health communication professionals," offers guidance on creating websites that are easy to use for people with limited literacy skills and limited Internet experience, with content that is engaging and on which readers can act. The guide is structured according to six strategies: (1) learn about the users and their goals, (2) write actionable content, (3) display content clearly, (4) organize content to simplify navigation, (5) engage users with interactive content, and (6) evaluate and revise the site. Examples of writing and design are included.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Health Literacy | Government | Public Health |

National action plan to improve health literacy

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2010). National action plan to improve health literacy. Retrieved from http://health.gov/communication/HLActionPlan/

The plan is based on the principles that everyone has the right to health information and that health services should be delivered in ways that are understandable. Seven goals and strategies to achieve them are outlined. These goals include promoting changes in the health care system that improve health information, communication, informed decision-making, and access to health services; supporting and expanding local efforts to provide adult education, English language instruction, and culturally and linguistically appropriate health information services in the community; increasing basic research and the development, implementation, and evaluation of practices and interventions to improve health literacy; and increasing the dissemination and use of evidence-based health literacy practices and interventions.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Health Literacy | Government | Public Health |

Asset-Based Community Development Institute External Web Site Policy

Asset-Based Community Development Institute. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.abcdinstitute.org/

The ABCD Institute, located at Northwestern University, is part of a movement that considers local assets to be the "building blocks of sustainable community development." The institute is involved in building community capacity by engaging with community groups, participating in workshops and training, and offering technical support. They conduct community-participatory research and publish their work for scholars in the community development field and as practical resources for community builders.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Research |

Participatory program evaluation manual: Involving program stakeholders in the evaluation process External Web Site Policy

Aubel, J. (1999). Participatory program evaluation manual: Involving program stakeholders in the evaluation process. Retrieved from http://www.idrc.ca/uploads/user-S/10504133390Participatory_Program_Evaluation_Manual.pdf

Program stakeholders are individuals with a stake in the evaluation's outcome. They will be the ones who will make decisions or use information resulting from the evaluation. In a participatory approach, an evaluation coordinator will need to decide who the stakeholders are and how they should be represented and to work with them to define objectives and methodology, to collect information, and to develop conclusions and recommendations. The underlying assumptions are that "the evaluation will be better if the results reflect ... the subjective perspective of program implementers" as well as objective measures; that the stakeholders' involvement will help to ensure that appropriate issues are addressed; and that it will give them "a sense of ownership" of the results.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Quality Improvement |

An evaluation framework for community health programs

Baker, Q. E., Davis, D. A., Gallerani, R., Sanchez, V., Viadro, C., & The Center for the Advancement of Community Based Public Health. (2000). An evaluation framework for community health programs. Retrieved from http://www.doh.state.fl.us/COMPASS/documents/Community_Health_Programs_Eval.pdf

This document outlines an evaluation framework in which communities are seen as full partners and stakeholders in the process. The material is organized around six steps of program evaluation: (1) engage stakeholders, (2) describe the program, (3) focus the evaluation design, (4) gather and analyze evidence, (5) justify conclusions, and (6) ensure use and share lessons learned.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Quality Improvement |

Healthy people toolkit 2010: A field guide to health planning External Web Site Policy

Baker, S., Conrad, D., Bechamps, M., & Barry M. (2002). Healthy people toolkit 2010: A field guide to health planning. Retrieved from Public Health Foundation website: http://www.phf.org/resourcestools/Documents/HP2010Toolkit2002.pdf

This publication offers guidance, technical tools, and resources to help states, territories, and tribes develop and promote Healthy People 2010 plans. It could also serve as a resource for communities and other entities planning similar endeavors. It is built around seven "action areas" found to be the most common elements in health planning and improvement efforts: leadership and structure, resources, community partners, priorities and objectives, measurement, management, and communication.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Governance & Leadership | Public Health |

Strategies for improving minority healthcare quality

This outdated information has been archived and is available for reference purposes only. To access the archived document, please go to: http://archive.ahrq.gov/clinic/epcarch.htm. Beach, M. C., Cooper, L. A., Robinson, K. A., Price, E. G., Gary, T. L., Jenckes, M. W., ... Powe, N. R. (2004). Strategies for improving minority healthcare quality (Publication No. 04-E008-02). Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality website: http://www.ahrq.gov/downloads/pub/evidence/pdf/minqual/minqual.pdf

The authors analyzed articles, found during an extensive literature search, on initiatives intended to improve minority health care and targeting health care providers or organizations. Most of the studies targeted physicians and most concerned aspects of prevention. There seems to be excellent evidence that reminder systems improve care and fair evidence that screening services directed to minority patients can improve care. There is excellent evidence that educational interventions targeting providers improve provider knowledge and patient satisfaction, but evidence of their effects on health outcome was only fair due to lack of consistency in methodology and measurement among the original studies.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Government | Public Health |

Resident physicians' preparedness to provide cross-cultural care: Implications for clinical care and medical education policy External Web Site Policy

Betancourt, J. R., Weissman, J. S, Kim, M. K., Park, E., & Maina, A. W. (2007). Resident physicians' preparedness to provide cross-cultural care: Implications for clinical care and medical education policy. Retrieved from The Commonwealth Fund website: http://www.commonwealthfund.org/usr_doc/1026_Betancourt_resident_MDs_preparedness_provide_cross-cultural_care.pdf

Noting that some residents in their final year of training felt unprepared to care for patients whose cultural characteristics (which may include mistrust of the health care system or beliefs at odds with Western medicine) are very far from their own, the authors recommend integration of cross-cultural training into curricula, the training of faculty members, and mandatory formal evaluation of residents' cross-cultural communication skills.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Profession-Based | Policy | Public Health |

Cultural competence in mental health care: a review of model evaluations

Bhui, K., Warfa, N., Edonya, P., McKenzie, K., Bhugra, D. (2007). Cultural competence in mental health care: a review of model evaluations. BMC Health Services Research, 7, 15. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-7-15

A literature search of articles published in English since 1985 found only nine that met the criteria of (1) showing implementation of a cultural competence model of mental health care and (2) providing some evaluation data for a cultural competency model of service provision or training - or including an evaluation of adherence to a predefined model of cultural competence in mental health services. None of the studies investigated outcomes for or experiences of the service users. The authors of the present review conclude that there "is limited evidence on the effectiveness of cultural competency training and service delivery" and that further work is required.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Research |

Inventory for assessing the process of cultural competence among healthcare professionals-revised External Web Site Policy

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2002). Inventory for assessing the process of cultural competence among healthcare professionals-revised (IAPCC-R). Retrieved from http://www.transculturalcare.net/iapcc-r.htm

This pencil-and-paper self-assessment tool is designed to measure cultural competence among health care professionals, residents, and students. It uses a four-point Likert scale. There are 25 items. Completion time is 10 to 15 minutes. The IAPCC-R is copyrighted, and a fee is required for its use.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Tools |

Principles of community engagement

Clinical and Translational Science Awards Consortium, Community Engagement Key Function Committee Task Force on the Principles of Community Engagement. (2011). Principles of community engagement (2nd ed.) (NIH publication no. 11-7782). Retrieved from http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/communityengagement/pdf/PCE_Report_508_FINAL.pdf

This primer contains a review of concepts, models, and frameworks from the literature on community engagement; nine principles of community engagement that are grounded in that literature; case examples from the literature; a discussion of the practical management of organizational support; challenges to be faced in improving research in the field; the value of social networking; and program evaluation.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Quality Improvement |

Assuring healthcare quality: A healthcare equity blueprint External Web Site Policy

Cummings, L. C., Bennett, B. A., Boutwell, A. E., & Martinez, E. L. (2008). Assuring healthcare quality: A healthcare equity blueprint. Retrieved from http://www2.massgeneral.org/disparitiessolutions/z_files/Assuring%20Health%20Care%20Quality_Equity%20Blueprint.pdf

This work offers strategies hospitals might follow in designing and implementing interventions to address racial and ethnic disparities. Topics include community partnerships; governance and leadership; and evidence-based, culturally and linguistically appropriate care. Tools, guidance, and resources are also included on measurement and data collection.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Governance & Leadership | Public Health |

Healthcare disparities at the crossroads with healthcare reform External Web Site Policy

Fiscella, K. (2011). Eliminating disparities in health care through quality improvement. In R. A. Williams (Ed.), Healthcare disparities at the crossroads with healthcare reform (pp. 231-267). New York, NY: Springer.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Disparities | Quality Improvement | Public Health |

Obtaining data on patient race, ethnicity, and primary language in health care organizations: Current challenges and proposed solutions

Hasnain-Wynia, R., & Baker, D. W. (2006). Obtaining data on patient race, ethnicity, and primary language in health care organizations: Current challenges and proposed solutions. Health Services Research, 41, 1501-1518. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2006.00552.x

The authors note the fragmentary nature of the data collected by health care organizations on patient race, ethnicity, and language and argue that a commitment to the systematic collection of such data would enhance the ability of health care organizations to monitor processes and outcomes for various groups, direct quality improvement efforts more efficiently and effectively, and provide patient-centered care.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Public Health |

Barriers to collecting patient race, ethnicity and primary language data in physician practices: An exploratory study

Hasnain-Wynia, R., Van Dyke, K., Youdelman, M., Krautkramer, C., Ivey, S., Gilchick, R., ... & Wynia M. (2010). Barriers to collecting patient race, ethnicity and primary language data in physician practices: An exploratory study. Journal of the National Medical Association, 102(9), 769-775.

The authors conducted telephone interviews with representatives of 20 small practices (five or fewer physicians) nationwide. Nine practices reported collecting demographic data. One linked demographic data to quality. The single practice feature noted as facilitating the collection of demographic data was the use of an electronic medical records system. Pay-for-performance programs and cultural competency training did not have an effect on data collection. Perceived barriers included privacy concerns, uncertainty regarding the usefulness of the data, the legality of collecting the information, and possible patient and staff resistance.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Profession-Based | Policy | Public Health |

Culture, language, and patient safety: Making the link

Johnstone, M. J., & Kanitsaki, O. (2006). Culture, language, and patient safety: Making the link. International Journal of Quality in Health Care, 18(5), 383-388. Retrieved from http://intqhc.oxfordjournals.org/content/18/5/383.full.pdf

The authors suggest that failure to recognize the link between culture and language, on the one hand, and patient safety, on the other, exposes hospital patients from minority backgrounds to preventable adverse events. They also suggest that the vulnerabilities of these patients be "actively addressed in patient safety systems and processes."

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Patients & Consumers | Public Health |

Guide for developing a community-based patient safety advisory council

Leonhardt, K., Bonin, D., & Pagel, P. (2008). Guide for developing a community-based patient safety advisory council (AHRQ Publication No. 08-0048). Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/advisorycouncil/advisorycouncil.pdf

This guide offers a 10-step approach to the creation of a patient safety advisory council. The intended audience is assumed to have a basic knowledge of patient safety and some awareness of logistics and meeting planning but without prior experience of including consumers and a wide array of perspectives in the discussions.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Government | Patients & Consumers | Public Health |

Conflict resolution: Resolving conflict rationally and effectively External Web Site Policy

Mind Tools. (n.d.). Conflict resolution: Resolving conflict rationally and effectively. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_81.htm

Effective conflict resolution can lead to increased understanding of complex situations, increased group cohesion, and improved self-knowledge of individuals' goals. Two theories of conflict resolution are discussed and a five-step conflict resolution process is presented. A four-minute video is included with the article.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Communication and Language Assistance |

Bridging the cultural divide in health care settings: The essential role of cultural broker programs External Web Site Policy

National Center for Cultural Competence. (2004). Bridging the cultural divide in health care settings: The essential role of cultural broker programs. Retrieved from http://gucchd.georgetown.edu/products/CulturalBrokerGuide_English.pdf

Cultural brokers "can bridge the gap between health care providers and the communities they serve." This guide discusses the role of cultural brokers; the benefits of cultural brokers to health care delivery systems; guiding principles for cultural broker programs in health care settings; the essential values, knowledge, skills, and awareness required of cultural brokers; and guidance in the implementation of a sustainable cultural broker program.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Communication and Language Assistance |

Benchmarking patient complaints data across Ontario hospitals: University Health Network invites collaboration External Web Site Policy

Rogers, S., & Vilhena, B. (2005). Benchmarking patient complaints data across Ontario hospitals: University Health Network invites collaboration [Online case study]. Healthcare Quarterly. Retrieved from http://www.longwoods.com/product/download/code/17728

The authors observe that it is increasingly common for hospitals to designate some individuals to serve as "complaints departments" to respond to patient concerns and that many hospital improvements result from this source of information. While acknowledging the difficulties in the establishment of a scientifically rigorous methodology for comparing interhospital complaints data, they suggest that the time is ripe for provincewide benchmarking efforts.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Patients & Consumers | Public Health |

Cultural and linguistic competency policy External Web Site Policy

San Francisco Department of Public Health. (2002). Cultural and linguistic competency policy. Retrieved from http://www.sfdph.org/dph/comupg/aboutdph/insideDept/CLAS/CLASPolicies.asp

The National CLAS Standards were used as guidelines for the seven policies and associated procedures detailed in this document from the San Francisco Department of Public Health. The policies concern nondiscrimination in the provision of services, grievance procedures, cultural and linguistic competency reports, contracts for direct services to the public, program monitoring, and training.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Policy | Public Health |

Defining and measuring community benefit External Web Site Policy

Sandrick, K. (2006, October). Defining and measuring community benefit. Trustee, 59(9), 6-10. Retrieved from http://www.trusteemag.com/trusteemag_app/jsp/articledisplay.jsp?dcrpath=TRUSTEEMAG/PubsNewsArticleGen/data/2006October/0610TRU_CoverStory&domain=TRUSTEEMAG

In the face of threats to their tax-exempt status, not-for-profit hospitals must find consistent ways of identifying and tracking their benefits to the community. The author discusses legal requirements for community benefit, giving many examples. Documentation is discussed with reference to the Catholic Health Association's Guide for Planning and Reporting Community Benefit.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Policy | Public Health |

An introduction to effectiveness, dissemination and implementation research: A resource manual for community-engaged research External Web Site Policy

Schillinger, D. (2010). An introduction to effectiveness, dissemination and implementation research: A resource manual for community-engaged research. Retrieved from http://accelerate.ucsf.edu/files/CE/edi_introguide.pdf

This guide offers an introduction to the principles of effectiveness research, diffusion research, dissemination research, and implementation sciences. One of the author's purposes is to promote interest among members of the scientific community, medical practitioners, policymakers at the local, regional, and state levels, and community members in research that will help to close the gap between scientific discovery and integration of that new knowledge into institutional practice and policy. The author provides an extensive bibliography and a list of relevant Web resources.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Policy | Public Health |

Assets-oriented community assessment

Sharpe, P. A., Greaney, M. L., Lee, P. R., & Royce, S. W. (2000). Assets-oriented community assessment. Public Health Reports, 115(2-3), 205-211. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1308712/pdf/pubhealthrep00022-0103.pdf

The authors argue that, rather than a needs-based or problem-focused orientation to assessment, Healthy Communities initiatives are better served by an assets-oriented assessment approach.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Quality Improvement |

Community-based participatory research External Web Site Policy

University of Washington, Community-Campus Partnerships for Health. (n.d.). Community-based participatory research. Retrieved from http://depts.washington.edu/ccph/commbas.html

This website serves as a clearinghouse for information on "participatory models of research, in which communities are actively engaged in the research process through partnerships with academic institutions." Links are available to reports and presentations, examples of funded proposals, peer-reviewed journal articles, syllabi and course materials, electronic discussion groups, a free online course, principles and policies of community-based participatory research, and sample memoranda of understanding and memoranda of agreement for codifying partner relationships.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Public Health | Tools |