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CLAS Clearinghouse: Results for "Disparities"



Insurance and Socioeconomic Status Do Not Explain Racial Disparities in Breast Cancer Care External Web Site Policy

Freedman, R. A., Virgo, K. S., He, Y., Pavluck, A. L., Winer, E. P., Ward, E. M., & Keating, N. L. (2010). The association of race/ethnicity, insurance status, and socioeconomic status with breast cancer care. CANCER, 117(1), 180-189. doi: 10.1002/cncr.25542

This study discusses the prevalence of inequities in breast cancer care even when insurance status and socioeconomic status are controlled for. The findings suggest that greater efforts are needed to understand disparities in breast cancer care and to ensure that all receive equal and effective treatments.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities |

Surveillance of Screening-Detected Cancers (Colon and Rectum, Breast, and Cervix)

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Surveillance of screening-detected cancers (colon and rectum, breast, and cervix) (CDC Publication No. 59[SS09], 1-25). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/

This study by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reveals that almost half of colorectal and cervical cancers and a third of breast cancers are diagnosed at late stages, when treatment is more difficult, despite the availability of effective screenings. The late diagnoses are disproportionately suffered by racial and ethnic minorities. The study identifies education as a key to improving these outcomes, recommending that providers explain the benefits of screenings to patients in a manner that the patient will understand.

Keywords:    Research | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce |

Toothache in US Children External Web Site Policy

Lewis, C., & Stout, J. (2010). Toothache in US children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164, 1056-1063. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.206

Data from the National Survey of Children's Health offers evidence of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in pediatric oral health. Even when socioeconomic status was controlled for, there were inequities by race.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities |

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare in California External Web Site Policy

California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. (2010). Racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare in California: California fact book. Retrieved from http://www.oshpd.ca.gov/HID/Products/PatDischargeData/ResearchReports/EthnicRacialDisp/RacialEthnic
FactBook_2010.pdf

The State of California conducted a study on racial and ethnic health disparities in 2010. Although the study found improvement in many areas, it also found that significant inequities persist. The authors note that the report provides strong evidence for policymakers, healthcare providers, public health professionals, researchers, and other interested stakeholders to focus efforts on addressing access to and quality of care.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities |

Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act Of 2010: Advancing Health Equity for Racially and Ethnically Diverse Populations External Web Site Policy

Andrulis, D. P., Siddiqui, N. J., Purtle, J. P., & Duchon, L. (2010). Patient protection and affordable care act of 2010: advancing health equity for racially and ethnically diverse populations. Retrieved from Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies website: http://www.jointcenter.org/sites/default/files/upload/research/files/Patient%20Protection%20and%20Affordable%20Care%20Act.pdf

The Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies has published a report detailing the implications of 2010's healthcare reform on health equity. It states that recent healthcare reform legislation offers an unprecedented opportunity to improve health equity in the United States.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Dental Care For Publicly Insured Children External Web Site Policy

Pourat, N., & Finocchio, L. (2010). Racial and ethnic disparities in dental care for publicly insured children. Health Affairs, 29(7), 1356-1363. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0089

A study published in Health Affairs examines oral health disparities among children in California. It determines that nearly 25 percent of children in California have never been to the dentist and that disparities exist across race, ethnicity, and type of insurance when it comes to the length of time between dental care visits.

Keywords:    Research | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disparities |

Race, culture may play role in Alzheimer's disease External Web Site Policy

Brophy Marcus, M. (2010, July 14). Race, culture may play role in Alzheimer's disease. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/

This article discusses research presented at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference. It examines the effect of racial and cultural differences on Alzheimer's patients' outcomes and the attitudes of their family members. The study finds that more culturally tailored resources could benefit African Americans, Latinos, and other minority groups.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care External Web Site Policy

American College of Physicians. (2010).Racial and ethnic disparities in health care, updated 2010. Retrieved from http://www.acponline.org/advocacy/where_we_stand/access/racial_disparities.pdf

The American College of Physicians released a 2010 update to its policy paper, "Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care." It calls for the healthcare system to adapt to meet the needs of an increasingly multicultural patient base. Recommendations include that healthcare professionals need to acknowledge the cultural, informational, and linguistic needs of their patients as our society increasingly becomes more racially and ethnically diverse.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Health Literacy | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance |

At Hospitals, New Methods With a Focus on Diversity External Web Site Policy

Santos, F. (2010, September 6) At hospitals, new methods with a focus on diversity. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

This New York Times article discusses the ways that hospitals nationwide are adopting practices intended to improve care for an increasingly diverse patient population beyond language access services. Making immigrant and minority individuals feel more at ease can translate into improved health outcomes according to health providers.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

How Well Do Doctors Know their Patients? Factors Affecting Physician Understanding of Patients External Web Site Policy

Street, R. L., & Haidet, P. (2010). How well do doctors know their patients? Factors affecting physician understanding of patients' health beliefs. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26(1), 21-27. doi: 10.1007/s11606-010-1453-3

This study examines the features of patient-centered care; specifically, a physician's understanding of his or her patients' health beliefs and values. The results indicate that physicians' perceptions of their patients' health beliefs differ significantly from patients' actual beliefs. This study indicates that strategies for increasing physicians' awareness of patients' health beliefs include implementing culturally appropriate patient activation programs.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Cancer study sees cultural factors in racial disparities External Web Site Policy

Avery, S. (2010, June 16). Cancer study sees cultural factors in racial disparities. The News & Observer. Retrieved from http://www.newsobserver.com/

The Journal of the American Medical Association has published a study from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill about the cultural factors present in the racial disparities of lung cancer. The scientists concluded that, despite a high likelihood of death, Black patients are much less inclined to have surgery for early stage lung cancer than White patients, often because of a communication gulf between them and their doctors.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Ending health disparities takes interdisciplinary approach External Web Site Policy

Lewis, C., & Stout, J. (2010). Toothache in US children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164, 1056-1063. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.206

In this message from the American Medical Association (AMA) president to all physicians, Dr. Rohack notes that an interdisciplinary approach to patient-centered care may help reduce health disparities by addressing challenges in communication such as low health literacy and medication mismanagement. He commits to helping guide the changes needed to ensure culturally competent patient care. When patients do not understand their medical conditions or what to do to control them, unnecessary healthcare costs only will increase, a situation he notes the AMA is committed to avoiding.

Keywords:    Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health Disparities Calculator External Web Site Policy

Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results, National Cancer Institute. (2010). Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc) [Computer software]. Retrieved from http://seer.cancer.gov/

Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results at the National Cancer Institute has developed a Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc), which is a statistical software designed to generate multiple summary measures to evaluate and monitor health disparities.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health Disparities Education External Web Site Policy

Lypson, M. L., Bussey-Jones, J., Glick, S., Brown, A. F., & Jacobs, E. A. (2010). Health disparities education. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(2), 79-81. doi: 10.1007/s11606-010-1312-2

The Journal of General Internal Medicine dedicated its May 2010 supplement to health disparities education. This supplement focuses on approaches to teaching health disparities and health disparities curriculums for students. It contains 27 articles, including "Medical Students' Perceptions of Their Teachers' and Their Own Cultural Competency: Implications for Education" and "Beyond Knowledge, Toward Linguistic Competency: An Experiential Curriculum."

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance & Leadership | Profession-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

HHS Launches Oral Health Initiative

HHS Launches Oral Health Initiative. (2010, April 26). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/

In April 2010, Dr. Howard Koh (Assistant Secretary for Health, HHS) announced an initiative to expand oral health services, education, and research in America ("Oral Health Is Integral to Overall Health"). Through the initiative, the department is increasing support for access to oral healthcare and the delivery of services to underserved populations.

Keywords:    Policy | Government | Profession-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

National Healthcare Disparities Report

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. National Healthcare Disparities Report (AHRQ Publication No. 10-0004). Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr09/nhdr09.pdf

The AHRQ produced the 2009 NHDR. The NHDR tracks the healthcare system through quality measures and summarizes healthcare quality and access among various racial, ethnic, and income groups and other priority populations, such as children and older adults.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Government | Disease-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Organ Transplant Program 'mistrust' studied External Web Site Policy

Conte, A. (2010, May 2). Organ transplant program 'mistrust' studied. Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved from http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/

Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine have shown that patients who think healthcare providers discriminate against them take more time to get approved for kidney transplant surgery. Blacks are four times more likely than Whites to have kidney failure, but they are less than half as likely to receive transplants from living donors. The lead researcher notes that doctors should identify patients who perceive discrimination in order to help them navigate the process.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

American Journal of Public Health External Web Site Policy

American Public Health Association. (2010). American Journal of Public Health, 100(5). Retrieved from http://ajph.aphapublications.org/content/vol100/issue5/

The first issue of any major public health journal devoted to Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander populations, the May issue of the American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) explores an array of new research on both alarming disparities and significant successes in care.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Public Health | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Commentary: Linking Cultural Competence Training to Improved Health Outcomes: Perspectives From the Field. External Web Site Policy

Betancourt, J. R., & Green, A. R. (2010). Commentary: linking cultural competence training to improved health outcomes: perspectives from the field. Academic Medicine, 85(4), 583-585. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181d2b2f3

This article explores the impact cultural competency may have on health outcomes. Cultural competence training should be evaluated in a stepwise fashion by using the tools of health services research and the principles of quality improvement, and it should be held to the same standards as other educational interventions and activities.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance & Leadership | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Racial/Ethnic Difference in Early-Life Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity External Web Site Policy

Taveras, E. M., Gillman, M. W., Kleinman, K., Rich-Edwards, J. W., & Rifas-Shiman, S. L. (2010). Racial/ethnic difference in early-life risk factors for childhood obesity. Pediatrics, 125(4), 686-695. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2100

A team of researchers in Boston set out to examine racial/ethnic differences in early-life risk factors for childhood obesity. The study finds that racial/ethnic differences in risk factors for obesity exist prenatally and in early childhood. Racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity may be determined by factors that operate at the earliest stages of life.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Improving Patient-Provider Communication: Joint Commission Standards and Federal Laws External Web Site Policy

The Joint Commission (Producer). (2009). Improving Patient-Provider Communication: Joint Commission Standards and Federal Laws [Video]. Available from http://www.jointcommission.org/

"Improving Patient-Provider Communication" is a video created by the Joint Commission along with HHS and the Office for Civil Rights as part of their efforts to eliminate racial, ethnic, and language disparities in healthcare. The video educates healthcare providers in providing language access in healthcare organizations. Language access is critical in providing safe, quality patient care.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Eliminating Health Disparities: What Works? External Web Site Policy

Anderson, J. (2009, April to present). Eliminating health disparities: what works? Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants. Retrieved from http://www.jaapa.com/

"Eliminating Health Disparities: What Works?" is a series of articles in the Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants. Each month, the journal examines a pertinent topic within the field of health disparities and discusses tools that can help healthcare providers assess and eliminate health disparities in their practice. The column tackles issues such as bias and the role of race in health.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Protection of Racial/Ethnic Minority Populations During an Influenza Pandemic External Web Site Policy

Hutchins, S. S., Fiscella, K., Levine, R. S., Ompad, D. C., & McDonald, M. (2009). Protection of racial/ethnic minority populations during an influenza pandemic. American Journal of Public Health, 99(S2), S261-S270. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.161505

This study examines the disproportionate impact of an influenza pandemic on racial and ethnic minority populations. The research recommends that pandemic interventions implement culturally competent preparedness and response that address the specific needs of racial/ethnic minority populations as well as relevant, practical, and culturally and linguistically tailored communications.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Study: Many Say Disparities Genetic External Web Site Policy

Study: many say disparities genetic. (2009, October 20). United Press International. Retrieved from http://www.upi.com/Health_News/2009/10/20/Study-Many-say-racial-disparities-genetic/UPI-80281256018232/

A study published in the Social Science Quarterly indicates that a majority of Americans support strategies to reduce healthcare disparities that are caused by social and economic status but believe that racial and ethnic health disparities are genetic. The authors note that the general public's belief that racial disparities have a genetic foundation is troubling because people will resist strategies aimed at eliminating health disparities.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Multicultural Health Care: A Quality Improvement Guide

National Committee for Quality Assurance, & Lilly USA, LLC. (2011). Multicultural health care: a quality improvement guide. Retrieved from http://www.clashealth.org/

The National Committee for Quality Assurance and Lilly USA, LLC, have developed Multicultural Health Care: A Quality Improvement Guide, a free, online resource for healthcare professionals. The website helps those seeking to undertake quality improvement initiatives to improve culturally and linguistically appropriate services and to reduce disparities in care.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Profession-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

CSMS issues results of health disparities survey External Web Site Policy

CSMS issues results of health disparities survey. (2009, October 28). Connecticut State Medical Society. Retrieved from http://www.csms.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2415&Itemid=222

This article discusses the results of a survey conducted by the Connecticut State Medical Society (CSMS) about physicians' views on ways to reduce disparities in healthcare, including cultural competency training. The results indicate that Connecticut physicians believe they could provide better care to patients of minority communities if they had better access to training. As a result of these findings, CSMS has committed to providing cultural competency training to physicians to help eliminate healthcare disparities in Connecticut.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Profession-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Studying State Legislation of Cultural and Linguistic Competence External Web Site Policy

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2009). Studying state legislation of cultural and linguistic competence. Retrieved from http://www.rwjf.org/

The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) funded a study by the National Center for Cultural Competence at Georgetown University that assessed State efforts to integrate cultural competence into continuing education and licensure requirements for healthcare professionals. The study reveals characteristics common between those States with legislation and States with barriers to the passage of legislation, and the study offers several strategic planning ideas.

Keywords:    Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Non-Native English Speakers Face Numerous Linguistic, Cultural Barriers to Medical Care External Web Site Policy

California Healthline. (2009). Non-Native English Speakers Face Numerous Linguistic, Cultural Barriers to Medical Care [Audio report]. Retrieved from http://www.californiahealthline.org/

This is an audio report that discusses a study conducted at the University of California-Berkley. The study finds that many non-native English speakers encounter difficulties in communicating with their healthcare providers, which can lead to lower quality healthcare. The researchers interviewed several key experts, who recommend that policymakers address health access issues by investing in telemedicine-based interpretation services and by recruiting bilingual medical professionals.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Improving Access to Language Services in Health Care: A Look at National and State Efforts

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2009). Improving access to language services in health care: a look at national and state efforts. Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/

The issue brief explores national efforts to address language barriers for patients with limited English proficiency. It identifies challenges to delivering language services and highlights successes and implications for future policy as well as activities related to providing language services.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Population-Based | Communication | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance |

When the Patient Gets Lost in Translation External Web Site Policy

Chen, P. W. (2009, April 23). When the patient gets lost in translation. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

This article in the New York Times is a firsthand account from a surgeon interacting with limited-English-proficient patients combined with a summary of the literature on the effects of a language barrier on healthcare. Dr. Chen regrets providing inadequate language access services in the interest of expediency. With this awareness, she explains strategies that doctors should use to overcome these challenges and ensure that each patient is receiving equal care.

Keywords:    Tools | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance |

Speaking the Same Language: Medical Providers Struggle to Communicate With Immigrant Patients External Web Site Policy

Barclay, E. (2009, April 21). Speaking the same language: medical providers struggle to communicate with immigrant patients. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/04/20/AR2009042002466_pf.html

This Washington Post article discusses the effect of the Washington area's high immigration rates on its healthcare providers and the quality of care offered to patients. The author describes the medical errors and discrimination that can result from inadequate language services, and she provides doctors' and patients' points of view.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved External Web Site Policy

Brennan, V. M. (Ed.). (2009). Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. doi: 10.1353/hpu.0.0146

The May 2009 issue of the Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved offers a variety of articles that address issues of health disparities and access to care. It highlights medical education issues regarding obstacles and supports for different minority groups during the application process for medical school. It includes a section on immigrant health, which contains articles on a variety of racial and ethnic groups, including Chinese and Latinos.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

2008 National Healthcare Quality & Disparities Reports

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2009). National healthcare quality report, 2008 (AHRQ Publication No. 09-0001). Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/qrdr08.htm

The AHRQ released 2008's NHQR and NHDR, which present findings on quality of and access to healthcare by measuring trends in effectiveness of care, patient safety, patient centeredness, and more.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

National Pharmacy Benefit Manager to Strengthen How it Provides Language Assistance Services External Web Site Policy

National pharmacy benefit manager to strengthen how it provides language assistance services. (2009, June 15). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/

The HHS announced that Medco, a national pharmacy benefit management company, will significantly improve its language access services for limited-English-proficient individuals. The acting director of the HHS Office for Civil Rights noted that this development will combat health disparities, promote healthcare reform, and improve access to care.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance |

One Size Does Not Fit All: Meeting The Health Care Needs of Diverse Populations External Web Site Policy

Wilson-Stronks, A., Lee, K. K., Cordero, C. L., Kopp, A. L., & Galvez, E. (2008). One size does not fit all: meeting the health care needs of diverse populations. Retrieved from The Joint Commission website: http://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/6/HLCOneSizeFinal.pdf

This report provides insight into the ways in which hospitals meet diverse patient needs and reduce health disparities. It examines the challenge that healthcare organizations face when addressing cultural and language issues, and it provides a general framework for developing organizational cultural competence. The report stresses that each hospital is responsible for tailoring an approach to cultural competence that addresses its needs rather than relying on a "one size fits all" solution.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Profession-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health External Web Site Policy

Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (2008). Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Retrieved from the World Health Organization website: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241563703_eng.pdf

This is the final report by the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which set out to examine ways to achieve health equity around the world. The report determines that the problem of health disparities can be tackled by developing strategies to influence policies and organizations that affect entire societies. The Commission has succeeded in its goal to create a global movement to promote health equity by establishing partnerships with governments and global organizations. The Commission concludes that achieving health equity within a generation is achievable.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

National Consensus Statement on Integrating Racially and Ethnically Diverse Communities into Public Health Emergency Preparedness External Web Site Policy

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Office of Minority Health and Drexel University, Center for Health Equality National Consensus Panel on Emergency Preparedness and Cultural Diversity. (2008). National consensus statement on integrating racially and ethnically diverse communities into public health emergency preparedness. Retrieved from http://www.diversitypreparedness.org/SiteData/docs/National%20Consensus%20Statement%20%26%20Guiding%20Principles%20%26%20Panel%20List%20508/695132ab58eb36a7c2f67ba98d5a72ec/National%20Consensus%20Statement%20%26%20Guiding%20Principles%20%26%20Panel%20List%20508.pdf

This statement provides a framework for integrating racially and ethnically diverse communities into emergency preparedness. It was developed by the National Consensus Panel on Emergency Preparedness and Cultural Diversity, an initiative of the Drexel University School of Public Health's Center for Health Equality and the HHS Office of Minority Health.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Health Care: A Chartbook External Web Site Policy

Mead, H., Cartwright-Smith, L., Jones, K., Ramos, C., Woods, K., & Siegel, B. (2008). Racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. health care: a chartbook. Retrieved from the Commonwealth Fund website: http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/media/Files/Publications/Chartbook/2008/Mar/Racial%20and%20Ethnic%20Disparities%20in%20U%20S%20%20Health%20Care%20%20A%20Chartbook/Mead_racialethnicdisparities_chartbook_1111%20pdf.pdf

This chartbook provides a framework through which policymakers, teachers, researchers, and practitioners may understand health disparities and formulate solutions. The chartbook presents data regarding health disparities, including their nature and etiology, and seeks to provoke thought about why disparities exist and how they can be eliminated.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Educating Physicians to Provide Culturally Competent, Patient-Centered Care External Web Site Policy

Like, R. C., Barrett, T. J., & Moon, J. (2008, Summer). Educating physicians to provide culturally competent, patient-centered care. Perspectives: A View of Family Medicine in New Jersey, 7(2), 10-20. Retrieved from http://www.njafp.org/publications/archive

This article in a New Jersey family medicine publication discusses the history of, rationale for, and effects of the legislation in New Jersey enacted in March 2005 that requires all physicians to complete cultural competency training for re-licensure and mandates the inclusion of relevant curricular content in the State's medical schools. It also outlines the development of cultural competency in legislation throughout the country on both State and national levels.

Keywords:    Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health Disparities: Barriers to a Culture of Preparedness External Web Site Policy

Honore, R. L. (2008). Health Disparities: Barriers to a Culture of Preparedness. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 14(6), S5-S7. doi: 10.1097/01.PHH.0000338381.29071.d6

This article discusses the ways that inequalities in health and healthcare present a barrier to the United States' disaster preparedness and response activities. The article sets out to show that individuals, communities, the private sector, nonprofits, and all levels of government need to work together to reduce health inequalities to improve the Nation's level of preparedness and response to a crisis.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Physician Implicit Attitudes and Stereotypes About Race and Quality of Medical Care External Web Site Policy

Sabin, J. A., Rivara, F. P., & Greenwald, A. G. (2008). Physician implicit attitudes and stereotypes about race and quality of medical care. Medical Care, 46(7), 678-685. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e3181653d58

This study used a social psychological perspective to examine what effects healthcare providers' implicit attitudes about race have on healthcare and racial and ethnic healthcare disparities. The data indicate that most doctors in all racial and ethnic groups show an implicit preference of Whites over Blacks except for Black doctors, who show no preference for either race.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Journal of Public Health Management & Practice External Web Site Policy

Graham, G. N., Honore, P. A., & Beadle, M. (Eds.). (2008). Supplement 6. In Novick, L. F. (Journal Ed.) Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 14(6), S1-S87. Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/jphmp/pages/toc.aspx?year=2008&issue=11001

This supplemental issue of the Journal of Public Health Management & Practice is dedicated to health disparities. It contains articles on a wide variety of topics relating to health disparities and includes an editorial from Dr. Garth Graham, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Minority Health.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Integrating Immigrant Families in Emergency Response, Relief and Rebuilding Efforts External Web Site Policy

Wang, T., & Yasui, L. (2008). Integrating immigrant families in emergency response, relief and rebuilding efforts. The Annie E. Casey Foundation and Grantmakers Concerned with Immigrants and Refugees. Retrieved from the Grantmakers Concerned with Immigrants and Refugees website: http://www.gcir.org/system/files/Integrating%20Immigrant%20Families%20in%20Emergency%20Response%2C%20Relief%20and%20Rebuilding%20Efforts.pdf

This report examines the disparities faced by immigrants and limited-English-proficiency communities during times of disaster. It focuses on emergency management at the local level since, oftentimes, the local government is the first on the scene during a disaster event.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Roadmap to diversity: Key legal and educational policy foundations for medical schools External Web Site Policy

Coleman, A. L., Palmer, S. R., Winnick, S. Y., & Holland & Knight, L.L.P. (2008). Roadmap to diversity: key legal and educational policy foundations for medical schools. Association of American Medical Colleges. Retrieved from http://www.cossa.org/diversity/reports/Key_Legal_and_Policy_Foundations_for_Medical_Schools.pdf

This report, published by the Association of American Medical Colleges, seeks to provide hands-on guidance to medical schools that seek to improve diversity among their students, their missions, and their policies. The report is designed to guide all medical schools in their quest for increased diversity.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

The influence of physicians' demographic characteristics and their patients' demographic characteristics on physician practice: Implications for education and research External Web Site Policy

Berger, J. T. "The influence of physicians' demographic characteristics and their patients' demographic characteristics on physician practice: Implications for education and research." Academic Medicine, 83.1 (2008): 100-105.

Demographic differences, specifically race, gender, and religion, have been shown to affect the diagnosis, type of treatment, and prevention methods provided to patients. This study from Academic Medicine highlights the necessity of cultural self-awareness and individualized patient care.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Viewpoint: Physician, know thyself: The professional cultural of medicine as a framework for teaching cultural competence External Web Site Policy

Boutin-Foster, C., Foster, J. C., & Konopasek, L. (2008). Viewpoint: physician, know thyself: the professional cultural of medicine as a framework for teaching cultural competence. Academic Medicine, 83(1), 106-111. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e31815c6753

Medical schools are emphasizing the importance of cultural competency education, but its emphasis is often overshadowed by a number of challenges, which are addressed in this article. The article discusses several curricula changes for teaching cultural competence to physicians that will assist medical professionals in becoming more adequate in providing care to culturally and linguistically diverse populations.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Profession-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Demographics and Health Care Access and Utilization of Limited-English-Proficient and English-Proficient Hispanics

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2008). Research findings #28: demographics and health care access and utilization of limited-English-proficient and English-proficient Hispanics. Retrieved from http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb/data_files/publications/rf28/rf28.pdf

Using data from the 2004 Household Component of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, researchers examined the use and access of healthcare among Hispanic adults with limited English proficiency as well as English-proficient Hispanic adults. In comparison to English-proficient Hispanic adults, it was found that limited-English-proficiency Hispanic adults are more likely to be less educated, have a lower income, be unemployed, be without private insurance or uninsured, use health services less often, and have a lower satisfaction rate with the healthcare they receive.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Race, medical researcher distrust, perceived harm, and willingness to participate in cardiovascular prevention trials External Web Site Policy

Braunstein, J. B., Sherber, N. S., Schulman, S. P., Ding, E. L., & Powe, N. R. (2008). Race, medical researcher distrust, perceived harm, and willingness to participate in cardiovascular prevention trials. Medicine 87(1), 1-9. doi: 10.1097/MD.0b013e3181625d78

Using a tool called the Medical Researcher Distrust Index, researchers examined individuals' perceived risk of engaging in medical research, specifically in cardiovascular clinical trials. This study presents medical professionals and researchers with a number of intervention approaches that may help alleviate racial and ethnic disparities in research methodology.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Public health preparedness: Mobilizing state by state

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response. (2008). Public health preparedness: mobilizing state by state. A CDC report on the public health emergency preparedness cooperating agreement. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/

The report details the progress of States in preparedness and response issues. This report is intended to serve as a first step in detailing collaboration efforts in preparedness between local, State, and Federal governments. National and State-specific data are presented for all 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Public Health | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

National Resource Center External Web Site Policy

Drexel University School of Public Health's Center for Public Health Readiness & Communication, & U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Office of Minority Health. National resource center on advancing emergency preparedness for culturally diverse communities. (2011, June 10). Retrieved from http://www.diversitypreparedness.org/

The National Resource Center is a database of resources on the public health preparedness needs of diverse communities. The National Resource Center aims to serve as a clearinghouse for those stakeholders who are working to eliminate disparities among minority communities before, during, and following disasters.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Education & Training | Public Health | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health Disparities Report 2008: A County-Level Look at Health Outcomes for Minorities in Georgia

Georgia Department of Community Health Office of Health Improvement and Minority Health Advisory Council. (2008). Health disparities report 2008: a county-level look at health outcomes for minorities in Georgia. Retrieved from http://dch.georgia.gov/vgn/images/portal/cit_1210/5/49/111684019Georgia_Health_Equity_Initiative_
Health_Disparities_Report_2008.pdf

The Georgia Health Disparities Report examines minority health outcomes in each of the counties throughout the State of Georgia. The findings illustrate the need for additional collaborative efforts to truly reduce disparities in health in Georgia. One of the goals of the report is to illustrate what practices are working in certain counties so that others may adapt them to fit in their own counties.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Population-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Racial disparities in cancer therapy External Web Site Policy

Gross, C. P., Smith, B. D., Wolf, E., & Andersen, M. (2008). Racial disparities in cancer therapy. Cancer, 112(4), 900-908. doi: 10.1002/cncr.23228

This study, published by the American Cancer Society, analyzes whether racial disparities in cancer therapy received by Medicare beneficiaries had been reduced between the early 1990s and 2002 as a result of the increase of disparities reduction initiatives. The study shows no noticeable decrease in racial disparities between 1992 and 2002.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Community variation: Disparities in health care quality between Asian and white Medicare beneficiaries External Web Site Policy

Moy, E., Greenberg, L. G., & Borsky, A. E. "Community variation: Disparities in health care quality between Asian and white Medicare beneficiaries." Health Affairs 27.2 (2008): 538-549.

This study focused on disparities in quality of health care received between Asian and white Medicare recipients. The researchers found that, overall, Asian Medicare beneficiaries were less likely than whites to receive any of the services examined.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disease-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

In the absence of words: A compilation of personal stories addressing the language barrier in health care External Web Site Policy

PALS for Health, & the California Endowment. (2008). In the absence of words: A compilation of personal stories addressing the language barrier in health care. Retrieved from http://tcenews.calendow.org/pr/tce/document/In_the_Absence_of_Words.pdf

By presenting individual stories and narratives, this document seeks to educate and raise awareness about language barriers that exist in the U.S. healthcare system. The stories presented here come from interpreters and language ambassadors from the PALS for Health Program. Each story provides a real experience of a limited-English-proficiency individual and their struggles in the healthcare system.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance |

Summary of state law requirements addressing language needs in health care External Web Site Policy

Perkins, J., & Youdelman, M. (2008). Summary of state law requirements addressing language needs in health care. Retrieved from the National Health Law Program website: http://www.healthlaw.org/images/stories/issues/nhelp.lep.state.law.chart.final.0319.pdf

The National Health Law Program published a report detailing all existing State law requirements relating to language access needs in healthcare settings. Each State's data are presented in a unique chart with citation to the legislation, a brief description, and coding that indicates the subject matter being addressed.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Communication | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Evaluating interventions to reduce health care disparities: An RWJF program External Web Site Policy

Schlotthauer, A. E., Badler, A., Cook, S. C., Perez, D. J., & Chin, M. H. (2008). Evaluating interventions to reduce health care disparities: An RWJF program. Health Affairs 27(2), 568-573. Retrieved from http://www.rwjf.org/

The RWJF's Finding Answers Program provides funding for programs seeking to reduce and eliminate healthcare disparities. This article, published in the March/April 2008 issue of Health Affairs, provides an overview of some of the current interventions that have the potential to reduce or eliminate health disparities in real-world applications.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Primary-care clinician perceptions of racial disparities in diabetes care External Web Site Policy

Sequist, T. D., Ayanian, J. Z., Marshall, R., Fitzmaurice, G. M., & Safran, D. G. (2008). Primary-care clinician perceptions of racial disparities in diabetes care. Journal of General Internal Medicine 23(5), 678-684. doi: 10.1007/s11606-008-0510-7

This study analyzes racial disparities within the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. The findings from this study indicate the need to incorporate strategies such as clinical education about healthcare disparities to improve the treatment of minority patients and to help eliminate healthcare disparities among many racial and ethnic minorities.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health care in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: Health care in New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina External Web Site Policy

Shartzer, A. (Author), & kaiserEDU.org (Producer). (2008). Health care in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: Health care in New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina [Video tutorial]. Retrieved from http://www.kaiseredu.org/tutorials/katrina/player.html

This is a narrated tutorial from the Kaiser Family Foundation that discusses the state of healthcare in New Orleans both before Hurricane Katrina and following it. Much of the information presented discusses the effect that Katrina had on low income individuals, many of whom are minorities.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Population-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Identifying and Evaluating Equity Provisions in State Health Care Reform External Web Site Policy

Smedley, B., Alvarez, B., Panares, R., Fish-Parcham, C., & Adland, S. (2008). Identifying and evaluating equity provisions in state health care reform (Volume 90). Retrieved from The Commonwealth Fund website: http://www.commonwealthfund.org/

This report examines barriers to healthcare primarily among racial and ethnic minorities, immigrants, and those who are limited English proficient through the lens of insurance and State-level policies and reforms. The report evaluates existing or proposed policies in five States-Massachusetts, Washington, California, Illinois, and Pennsylvania. It also identifies existing State-level policies for equal access to care.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Communication | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Ready or not? Protecting the public's health from diseases, disasters, and bioterrorism, 2010 External Web Site Policy

Trust for America's Health, & The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2010). Ready or not 2010: protecting the public's health from diseases, disasters, and bioterrorism. Retrieved from the Trust for America's Health website: http://www.healthyamericans.org/assets/files/TFAH2010ReadyorNot%20FINAL.pdf

Since 2003, Trust for America's Health has been measuring the Nation's emergency health preparedness efforts to evaluate what is being done at the Federal, State, and local levels. This eighth annual Ready or Not? report regarding the United States' level of preparedness for disasters, bioterrorism threats, and disease epidemics indicates that, while important progress has been made in the Nation's public health preparedness, efforts need to continue, and much remains to be done.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

The medical tongue: U.S. laws and policies on language access. External Web Site Policy

Youdelman, M. (2008). The medical tongue: U.S. laws and policies on language access. Health Affairs, 27(2), 424-433. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.27.2.424

Despite many Federal- and State-level laws regarding language access services, language barriers in healthcare are still prevalent for many individuals with limited English proficiency. The existing laws are not always sufficiently implemented or enforced. This article examines the current legislation and makes suggestions for improving language access for limited-English-proficiency individuals through a variety of lenses, including implementation and enforcement, funding, education, interpreters and translators, and accountability.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Public Health | Government | Communication | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Creating Equity Reports: A Guide for Hospitals. Boston, MA External Web Site Policy

Weinick, R. M., Flaherty, K., & Bristol, S. J. (2008). Creating Equity Reports: A Guide for Hospitals. Retrieved from The Disparities Solutions Center, Massachusetts General Hospital website: http://www2.massgeneral.org/disparitiessolutions/z_files/Disparities%20Hospital%20guide.qxp.pdf

The findings in this report indicate that although many hospitals collect information about their patients' demographics, race, and ethnicity, they often do not make use of the information. This resource is a guide designed to assist hospitals in using that information to develop an equity report.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Profession-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Health Literacy | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

An American Health Dilemma: Race, Medicine, and Health Care in the United States 1900-2000, vol 2 External Web Site Policy

Byrd, W. M., & Clayton, L. A. (2001). An American health dilemma: race, medicine, and health care in the United States 1900-2000, vol 2. New York, NY: Routledge.

This landmark study of African-American healthcare explores the effects of racism on the medical profession. It discusses 20th-century advances in healthcare, the development of the insurance industry, declining support for public health, and the myriad social and economic factors that have had disparate impacts on the health of Black Americans.

Keywords:    Research | Population-Based | Disparities |

Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century External Web Site Policy

Committee on the Quality of Health Care in America: Institute of Medicine. (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: a new health system for the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

This report from the IOM's Committee on the Quality of Health Care in America documents the quality gap and its causes, and it calls for fundamental change to close the quality gap, recommending a redesign of the American healthcare system. The report provides principles to implement change for policymakers, healthcare leaders, clinicians, regulators, purchasers, and others.

Keywords:    Research | Disparities | Policy |

Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare External Web Site Policy

Institute of Medicine, Board of Health Sciences Policy, Committee on Understanding and Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. (2003). Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare. Retrieved from the National Academies Press website: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12875

This report, requested by Congress in 1999 to assess health disparities in the United States, finds that research demonstrates significant variation in the rates of medical procedures by race, even when insurance status, income, age, and severity of condition are comparable. The committee's recommendations for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare include increasing awareness about disparities among the general public, healthcare providers, insurance companies, and policymakers.

Keywords:    Research | Disparities |

2010 National Healthcare Disparities Report

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2011). 2010 National healthcare disparity report (AHRQ Publication No. 11-0005). Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr10/nhdr10.pdf

The HHS AHRQ released 2011's NHDR, which summarizes healthcare quality and access among various racial, ethnic, and income groups and other priority populations, such as residents of rural areas and people with disabilities.

Keywords:    Research | Government | Population-Based | Disparities |

Black babies at twice risk of whites, study indicates External Web Site Policy

Washburn, L. (2011, March 3). Black babies at twice the risk of whites, study indicates. The Seattle Times. Retrieved from http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/home/index.html

This article explores health disparities in pregnancy and births for Black women as compared to White women. Even when factors such as socioeconomic status are accounted for, Black women are more likely to go into labor before their pregnancy has reached full term and are more likely to give birth to babies whose smaller size puts them at greater risk.

Keywords:    Research | Disparities | Disease-Based | Population-Based | Clinical & Mental Health |

CDC Health Disparities and Inequities Report

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). CDC health disparities and inequities report-United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 60, 1-113. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/other/su6001.pdf

This report from the HHS CDC is the agency's first in a series of assessments of the Nations' health disparities and inequities. The report states that "Persistent health disparities in our country are unacceptable and correctable."

Keywords:    Research | Government | Disparities |

Culturally Appropriate Storytelling to Improve Blood Pressure External Web Site Policy

Houston, T. K., Allison, J. J., Sussman, M., Horn, W., Holt, C. L., Trobaugh, J., . . . Hullett, S. (2011). Culturally appropriate storytelling to improve blood pressure: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 154(2), 77-84. Retrieved from http://www.annals.org/content/154/2/77.full.pdf+html

This study tested a culturally appropriate intervention to control blood pressure in African Americans using DVDs of real patients' stories of how they deal with the chronic disease. Patients with uncontrolled blood pressure experience blood pressure reductions after viewing the DVD.

Keywords:    Research | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication | Clinical & Mental Health |

Impact of Patient-Doctor Race Concordance on Rates of Weight-Related Counseling in Visits by Black and White Obese Individuals External Web Site Policy

Bleich, S. N., Simon, A. E., Cooper, L. A. (2011). Impact of patient-doctor race concordance on rates of weight-related counseling in visits by Black and White obese individuals [Abstract]. Obesity. doi:10.1038/oby.2010.330

This study from the journal Obesity found that the race of a patient may be a factor in a doctor's treatment and counseling for obesity. The study showed that Blacks may get less counseling on exercise and weight reduction than Whites regardless if the physician they see is Black or White.

Keywords:    Research | Disease-Based | Population-Based | Disparities | Clinical & Mental Health | Communication |

Language and literacy relate to lack of children's dental sealant use External Web Site Policy

Mejia, G. C., Weintraub, J. A., Cheng, N. F., Grossman, W., Han, P. Z., Phipps, K. R., & Gansky, S. A. (2010). Language and literacy relate to lack of children's dental sealant use. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 39. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2010.00599.x

This study from the journal Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology tracks the social determinants of children lacking sealants. The study finds that differences exist by level of acculturation and parental health literacy.

Keywords:    Research | Disparities | Profession-Based | Disease-Based |

Measuring the Gaps: Collecting Data to Drive Improvements in Health Care Disparities External Web Site Policy

Russell, L. (2010). Measuring the Gaps: Collecting Data to Drive Improvements in Health Care Disparities. Retrieved from the Center for American Progress website: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2010/12/pdf/measuringgaps.pdf

This article discusses the Affordable Care Act requirements for the collection and analysis of healthcare disparities data, which will lay the foundation for developing targeted interventions to improve quality of care for racial and ethnic minorities.

Keywords:    Policy | Disparities | Government | Governance & Leadership | Quality Improvement |

Obama Official: Affordable Care Act Closes Racial Disparities External Web Site Policy

Chideya, F. (Host). (2011, March 23) Obama official: affordable care act closes racial disparities. In Martin, M. (Host), Tell Me More (Audio podcast), National Public Radio. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/

In this interview, Assistant Secretary for Minority Health Dr. Garth Graham discusses the impact of the Affordable Care Act on minority communities. He discusses several aspects of the law that will reduce health disparities among racial and ethnic minorities.

Keywords:    Policy | Disparities | Government | Quality Improvement |

White Patients Most Likely to Get Kidney Transplants: Study External Web Site Policy

Holohan, E. (2011, March 3). White patients most likely to get kidney transplants: study. Health Day: News for Healthier Living. Retrieved from http://consumer.healthday.com/

This study from the University of Washington at Seattle finds that minorities have a significantly lower chance of getting a kidney transplant than Whites do. The researchers note that language and cultural barriers as well as socioeconomic status contribute to this disparity.

Keywords:    Research | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Clinical & Mental Health |

With Poem, Broaching the Topic of Death External Web Site Policy

Daitz, B. (2011, January 24). With poem, broaching the topic of death. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

This article presents an Arizona hospital's efforts to provide culturally and linguistically appropriate geriatric and end-of-life services to its American Indian population.

Keywords:    Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Multicultural HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis Service External Web Site Policy

A public site where people can access multilingual information on HIV and Hepatitis C.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Clinical & Mental Health | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disease-Based | Disparities | Education & Training | Government | Health Literacy | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Patients & Consumers | Policy | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Public Health | Quality Improvement | Research | Tools |

Holistic Honu Wellness Center - Bridging the Gap between Traditional Healing and Western Medicine External Web Site Policy

The Holistic Honu Wellness Center is a very small health and wellness center in Berkeley, California where they address the issue of Native Hawaiian health disparities by acting as a conduit between traditional healing practices and the western medical communities everyday. Their current program has been the development and execution of a culturally competent education curriculum designed to address health disparity issues within Native Hawaiian communities that consists of four distinct levels.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance & Leadership | Clinical & Mental Health | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disparities | Education & Training | Health Literacy | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Public Health | Quality Improvement | Research | Tools |

NCQA Multicultural Healthcare Distinction fact sheet External Web Site Policy

A fact sheet describing how NCQA's Multicultural Healthcare Distinction program can help health care organizations meet Office of Minority Health CLAS standards.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Policy | Quality Improvement | Tools |

Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competency, and Patient/Family-Centered Care for LGBT Community External Web Site Policy

This new field guide from The Joint Commission urges U.S. hospitals to create a more welcoming, safe and inclusive environment that contributes to improved health care quality for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients and their families. The guide, Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient-and Family-Centered Care for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Community: A Field Guide, was developed with support from The California Endowment.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance & Leadership | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disparities | Education & Training | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Patients & Consumers | Policy | Population-Based | Public Health | Quality Improvement | Research | Tools |

Reexamining LGBT Healthcare External Web Site Policy

Out of the box LGBT cultural competence training, including 10-minute original video, slides and a manual

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance & Leadership | Clinical & Mental Health | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disease-Based | Disparities | Education & Training | Government | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Public Health |

Unnatural causes: Is inequality making us sick? External Web Site Policy

Adelman, L. (Creator, Producer). (2008). Unnatural causes: Is inequality making us sick? [Documentary series]. United States: California Newsreel with Vital Pictures.

This seven-part series, originally aired on PBS, investigates such topics as how the distribution of power, wealth, and resources shapes opportunities for health; whether racism can affect birth outcomes; the decline in health of Latino immigrants with increased time in the United States; the connection of diabetes with empowerment and oppression in Native American communities; and the differential effects of layoffs on health in Sweden and the United States. An episode concerned with geographic influences on health is available with Lao, Hmong, Vietnamese, Mandarin, or Cantonese audio.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Public Health |

Healthy people 2010 companion document for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) health External Web Site Policy

Gay and Lesbian Medical Association. (2001). Healthy people 2010 companion document for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) health. Retrieved from http://www.nalgap.org/PDF/Resources/HP2010CDLGBTHealth.pdf

One stated purpose of this document is "to examine health care disparities and a lack of access to needed services related to sexual orientation or gender identity." Lifestyle issues, such as diet and sexual activity, are also considered. Other topics include educational and community-based programs, health communication, immunization, mental health, substance use and abuse, violence prevention, cancer, AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Population-Based |

Future directions for the national healthcare quality and disparities reports External Web Site Policy

Institute of Medicine, Committee on Future Directions for the National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports. (2010). Future directions for the national healthcare quality and disparities reports. Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/research/iomqrdrreport/iomqrdrreport.pdf

Responding to findings that geographic, racial, and socio-economic disparities in health care often persist even when overall quality of care improves, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality asked the Institute of Medicine for guidance in improving the National Healthcare Quality Reports and the National Healthcare Disparities reports in ways that would make them more influential in promoting desired changes. The IOM recommended a set of eight priority areas for national health care improvement. These areas include access and patient and family engagement.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Quality Improvement | Government |

Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care External Web Site Policy

Institute of Medicine, Committee on Understanding and Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care, Board on Health Sciences Policy. (2003). B. D. Smedley, A. Y. Stith, & A. R. Nelson (Eds.). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10260&page=R1

This book explores how racial and ethnic minorities experience the health care environment, how treatment disparities can arise in health care systems, and how aspects of the clinical interaction could contribute to disparity. Attitudes, expectations, and behavior - of patients and providers alike - are examined. Based on their findings, the committee makes a number of recommendations for legal, regulatory, and policy changes; health systems interventions; patient and cross-cultural education efforts; data collection and monitoring; and research.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Policy | Public Health | Research |

Disparities Dashboard External Web Site Policy

Massachusetts General Hospital, Committee on Racial and Ethnic Disparities. (n.d.) Disparities Dashboard. In Massachusetts General Hospital, Committee on Racial and Ethnic Disparities. Subcommittees. Retrieved from http://www.mghdisparities.org/sub_quality.html

The Racial and Ethnic Disparities Dashboard is an internal Massachusetts General Hospital report on key quality indicators, stratified by race and ethnicity. This portion of the subcommittees (of the Committee on Racial and Ethnic Disparities) page outlines the structure of the dashboard.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Quality Improvement | Research |

Impacting health disparities through community outreach: Utilizing the CLEAN look (culture, literacy, education, assessment, and networking)

Meade, C., Menard, J., Martinez, D., & Calvo, A. (2007). Impacting health disparities through community outreach: Utilizing the CLEAN look (culture, literacy, education, assessment, and networking). Cancer Control, 14(1), 70-77. Retrieved from http://www.moffitt.org/CCJRoot/v14n1/pdf/70.pdf

The authors discuss the importance of considering culture and literacy in the development of community outreach programs for medically underserved populations and describe the application of the CLEAN Look checklist in a breast cancer outreach effort aimed at Haitian-American women.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Disease-Based | Public Health | Research | Tools |

National Coalition for LGBT Health External Web Site Policy

National Coalition for LGBT Health. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://lgbthealth.webolutionary.com/

The coalition actively seeks the elimination of health disparities based on sexual orientation, gender, and gender identity and supports efforts to eliminate disparities based on race, ethnicity, education, income, disability, nationality, geographic location, and age.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Population-Based |

Implementing multicultural health care standards: Ideas and examples External Web Site Policy

National Committee for Quality Assurance. (2009). Implementing multicultural health care standards: Ideas and examples. Retrieved from http://www.ncqa.org/Portals/0/Publications/Implementing%20MHC%20Standards%20Ideas%20and%20Examples%2004%2029%2010.pdf

Five standards are outlined. Background information and examples of implementation are given for each. The standards concern (1) race/ethnicity and language data, (2) access and availability of language services, (3) practitioner network cultural responsiveness, (4) development of a culturally and linguistically appropriate services program, and (5) reduction of health care disparities.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities |

Awards: Recognizing innovations in multicultural health care External Web Site Policy

National Committee for Quality Assurance. (2011). Awards: Recognizing innovations in multicultural health care. Retrieved from http://www.ncqa.org/tabid/453/Default.aspx

NCQA's Recognizing Innovation in Multicultural Health Care award program highlights the efforts of health plans to improve culturally and linguistically appropriate services and to address the needs of minority members. Topic areas include language access, cultural competence, clinical disparities reduction, community-driven programs or partnerships, culturally and linguistically appropriate patient education, cross-cultural health initiatives, quality and culture intersection, and culturally tailored disease management.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities |

National stakeholder strategy for achieving health equity

National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities. (2011). National stakeholder strategy for achieving health equity. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health website: http://www.minorityhealth.hhs.gov/npa/templates/content.aspx?lvl=1&lvlid=33&ID=286

This document offers a plan for eliminating health disparities through cooperative and strategic action. It is part of an effort to provide "visible and accountable federal leadership while also promoting collaborations among communities, states, tribes, the private sector and other stakeholders to more effectively reduce health disparities." It is an effort, also, to establish "a common set of goals and objectives" for the public and private sector organizations.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Government | Public Health |

Recommendations for teaching about racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care

Smith, W., Betancourt, J., Wynia, M., Bussey-Jones J., Stone, V., Phillips, C., ... & Bowles, J. (2007). Recommendations for teaching about racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care. Annals of Internal Medicine, 147(9), 654-665.

The Health Disparities Task Force of the Society of General Internal Medicine recommends that a curriculum include the following three learning objectives: (1) examination of the attitudes (e.g., mistrust, subconscious stereotyping) that both patients and practitioners may bring to a clinical encounter; (2) the existence, magnitude, and causes of health disparities and their possible solutions; and (3) the skills necessary to communicate effectively across cultures, languages, and literacy levels.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Research | Education & Training |

2010 National Healthcare Disparities Report

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2011). 2010 national healthcare disparities report (AHRQ Publication No. 11-0005). Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr10/nhdr10.pdf

The report includes discussions of the effectiveness of care (organized according to eight clinical areas), patient safety, timeliness of care, patient centeredness, care coordination, efficiency, health system infrastructure, access, and priority populations. A highlights section summarizes many of the findings, such as: health care quality and access are found to be suboptimal for minority and low-income groups - quality is improving, access and disparities are not; cancer screening and diabetes management are in particular need of attention; palliative and end-of-life care and patient and family engagement are improving - patient safety is not.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Government | Research |

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/lgbthealth

This CDC Web page provides links to information on and resources for some of the health issues and inequities affecting LGBT communities. Information is also available for health care providers, public health professionals, and students.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Population-Based | Government | Public Health |

National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health. (n.d.). National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities. Retrieved from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/npa

The Office of Minority Health established the National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities as a community-driven approach to the achievement of health equity. Partners may be individuals and organizations. The NPA's primary goal is to "foster community involvement and broad-based partnerships at all levels and among a range of sectors, particularly those at the front-line of fighting health disparities."

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Government |

HHS action plan to reduce racial and ethnic disparities: A nation free of disparities in health and health care

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). HHS action plan to reduce racial and ethnic disparities: A nation free of disparities in health and health care. Retrieved from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/npa/files/Plans/HHS/HHS_Plan_complete.pdf

In November 2010, Secretary Kathleen Sebelius charged the Department of Health and Human Services with the development of an action plan to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities. The plan is operational across all agencies and institutes within the department. This document outlining the action plan is organized according to five overarching goals (to be accomplished by 2015), with strategies and actions outlined for each.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Government | Public Health |

Improving quality and achieving equity: A guide for hospital leaders External Web Site Policy

Betancourt, J., Green, A., & King, R. (2008). Improving quality and achieving equity: A guide for hospital leaders. Retrieved from Massachusetts General Hospital, The Disparities Solutions Center website: http://www2.massgeneral.org/disparitiessolutions/z_files/disparities%20leadership%20guide_final.pdf

This guide reviews the evidence for racial and ethnic disparities in health care; discusses means to address them, focusing on quality, cost, risk management, and accreditation; examines model practices; and recommends a set of activities and resources for leaders in all types of hospitals and for others within hospitals who wish to make a case for addressing disparities. It includes a review of the relevant literature, case studies of innovative approaches, and interviews with hospital leaders.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disparities | Quality Improvement | Governance & Leadership | Public Health |

Practice what you teach: Curricular products from the National Consortium for Multicultural Education for Health Professionals External Web Site Policy

Carter-Pokras, O., Acosta, D. A., Lie, D., Bereknyei, S., DeLisser, H., Haidet, P., ... Glick, S. (2009). Practice what you teach: Curricular products from the National Consortium for Multicultural Education for Health Professionals. Retrieved from http://culturalmeded.stanford.edu/pdf%20docs/Focus%20MDNG%20NCME%20curricular%20products.pdf

The authors highlight several cultural competency and health disparities "curricular products" developed by members of the National Consortium for Multicultural Education for Health Professionals.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disparities | Education & Training |

Educating clinicians about cultural competence and disparities in health and health care External Web Site Policy

Like, R. C. (2011). Educating clinicians about cultural competence and disparities in health and health care. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 31(3), 196-206. doi:10.1002/chp.20127

The author provides an overview of legislative, accreditation, professional, and policy initiatives related to health care disparities and cultural competence and reviews the status of continuing medical education offerings in these areas. He examines whether the CME profession itself needs to become more culturally competent in the development, implementation, and evaluation of programs.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disparities | Policy | Public Health |

Provider and clinic cultural competence in a primary care setting

Paez, K. A., Allen, J. K., Carson, K. A., & Cooper, L. A. (2008). Provider and clinic cultural competence in a primary care setting. Social Science and Medicine, 66(5), 1204-1216. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2426909/?tool=pubmed

Forty-nine providers and 23 clinics were assessed as to cultural competence. The authors find that culturally appropriate provider behavior is associated with higher percentages of nonwhite staff in the clinic and with clinics offering culturally adapted patient education materials. The authors suggest that enhancing the cultural competence of providers and clinics "may be synergistic strategies for reducing healthcare disparities."

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Research | Disparities |

Healthcare disparities at the crossroads with healthcare reform External Web Site Policy

Fiscella, K. (2011). Eliminating disparities in health care through quality improvement. In R. A. Williams (Ed.), Healthcare disparities at the crossroads with healthcare reform (pp. 231-267). New York, NY: Springer.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Disparities | Quality Improvement | Public Health |

Health research and educational trust disparities toolkit External Web Site Policy

Hasnain-Wynia, R., Pierce, D., Haque, A., Hedges Greising, C., Prince, V., & Reiter, J. (2007). Health research and educational trust disparities toolkit. Retrieved from http://www.hretdisparities.org/

This is a Web-based toolkit providing information and resources that will allow health care organizations to collect patient race, ethnicity, and primary language data in a systematic way. Included are sections on how to ask the questions, the use of the data, staff training, community engagement, and deaf and hard-of-hearing populations.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Disparities | Tools |

Recognizing innovations in multicultural health care External Web Site Policy

National Committee for Quality Assurance. (2011). Recognizing innovations in multicultural health care. Retrieved from http://www.ncqa.org/tabid/453/Default.aspx

This award program recognizes health plans "for their exemplary efforts and demonstrated effectiveness in promoting cultural competence and addressing the health care needs" of members who belong to cultural or linguistic minorities. It is hoped that the award program may identify models suitable for replication. Topic areas for applications are language access, cultural competence, reducing clinical disparities, community-driven programs or community partnerships, culturally and linguistically appropriate patient education, cross-cultural health initiatives, quality and culture intersection, and culturally tailored disease management.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Tools | Disparities |

National voluntary consensus standards for ambulatory care: Measuring healthcare disparities External Web Site Policy

National Quality Forum. (2008). National voluntary consensus standards for ambulatory care: Measuring healthcare disparities. Retrieved from http://www.qualityforum.org/Publications/2008/03/National_Voluntary_Consensus_Standards_for_Ambulatory_Care%E2%80%94Measuring_Healthcare_Disparities.aspx

This consensus report presents 36 disparities-sensitive standards addressing asthma, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, medication management, mental health and substance abuse, prenatal care, immunization, screening, prevention, and patient experience. The measures presented are appropriate for practitioner practices, large and small groups, and health plans and may be applied nationally or locally. Recommendations are offered for practitioners and researchers.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Disparities | Disease-Based |

National Healthcare Quality & Disparities Reports: NHQRDRNet

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (n.d.). National Healthcare Quality & Disparities Reports: NHQRDRNet. Retrieved from http://nhqrnet.ahrq.gov/nhqrdr/jsp/nhqrdr.jsp#snhere#snhere

NHQRDRNet is an online query system that allows access to data from the National Healthcare Quality Report and the National Healthcare Disparities Report. Information is available on the effectiveness of care in many areas, on patient safety, care coordination, access to care, various diseases and conditions, and types of care and care settings.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Disparities | Quality Improvement | Government |

Collecting and using race, ethnicity and language data in ambulatory settings: A white paper with recommendations from the Commission to End Health Care Disparities External Web Site Policy

Wynia, M., Hasnain-Wynia, R., Hotze, T., & Ivey, S. (2011). Collecting and using race, ethnicity and language data in ambulatory settings: A white paper with recommendations from the Commission to End Health Care Disparities. Retrieved from American Medical Association website: http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/public-health/cehcd-redata.pdf

The authors make the point that, to eliminate disparities in care, it is necessary to collect valid and reliable demographic data. They discuss the potential barriers to the collection and use of such data and make recommendations as to when to collect demographic data, the type of data to collect, how to ask for race, ethnicity, and primary language data. The authors also discuss patient demographic data in relation to electronic health records systems.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance |

LGBT-TRISTAR External Web Site Policy

LGBT-TRISTAR is a government-funded technical assistance (TA) and training services division targeting providers of alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention, treatment and recovery support services. We provide on-site and online technical assistance and training designed to equip administrators and staff to provide services that are more accessible and culturally responsive to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) individuals and families.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance & Leadership | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Policy | Quality Improvement | Tools | Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services |

LGBT Resources by Gil Gerald & Associates, Inc. External Web Site Policy

Every year, research is advancing knowledge about best practices in serving LGBT/SGL individuals and families. Additionally and fortunately there are a growing number of organizations, programs and services that target and serve LGBT/SGL communities throughout the U.S. This site will maintain and update information of particular interest to health and human services providers.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance & Leadership | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disparities | Education & Training | Policy | Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services |

Implementing Cultural and Linguistic Requirements in Health Insurance Exchanges External Web Site Policy

This timely report offers an update on implementation progress, guidance, best practices, and tools for states, health plans, and organizations hastening to implement ACA’s cultural and linguistic requirements by October 1, 2013, when open enrollment begins. Also featured are seven in-depth case studies on State-Based Exchanges in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Maryland, New York, Oregon, and Washington, with information on best practices on integrating race, culture, and language in planning and operation.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance & Leadership | Disparities | Health Literacy | Communication and Language Assistance | Policy | Research | Tools |

Supporting and Transitioning the Health Care Safety Net External Web Site Policy

The Texas Health Institute recently released its second report, “Supporting and Transitioning the Health Care Safety Net,” in its five-part series known as The ACA & Racial and Ethnic Health Equity Series. This new report provides a snapshot on status and progress of nine key provisions in the ACA critical for advancing racial and ethnic health equity within the health care safety net. Through a close review of latest data, research, and federal guidance on safety net provisions, this report describes how the safety net stands at a crossroads in an era of reform. Complemented by perspectives from the field—including hospitals and health centers—the report discusses important priorities, challenges, and next steps for addressing and advancing racial and ethnic health equity through the safety net.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disparities | Health Literacy | Communication and Language Assistance | Patients & Consumers | Policy | Research | Tools | Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services |