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Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare in California External Web Site Policy

California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. (2010). Racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare in California: California fact book. Retrieved from http://www.oshpd.ca.gov/HID/Products/PatDischargeData/ResearchReports/EthnicRacialDisp/RacialEthnic
FactBook_2010.pdf

The State of California conducted a study on racial and ethnic health disparities in 2010. Although the study found improvement in many areas, it also found that significant inequities persist. The authors note that the report provides strong evidence for policymakers, healthcare providers, public health professionals, researchers, and other interested stakeholders to focus efforts on addressing access to and quality of care.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities |

Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act Of 2010: Advancing Health Equity for Racially and Ethnically Diverse Populations External Web Site Policy

Andrulis, D. P., Siddiqui, N. J., Purtle, J. P., & Duchon, L. (2010). Patient protection and affordable care act of 2010: advancing health equity for racially and ethnically diverse populations. Retrieved from Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies website: http://www.jointcenter.org/sites/default/files/upload/research/files/Patient%20Protection%20and%20Affordable%20Care%20Act.pdf

The Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies has published a report detailing the implications of 2010's healthcare reform on health equity. It states that recent healthcare reform legislation offers an unprecedented opportunity to improve health equity in the United States.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Race, culture may play role in Alzheimer's disease External Web Site Policy

Brophy Marcus, M. (2010, July 14). Race, culture may play role in Alzheimer's disease. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/

This article discusses research presented at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference. It examines the effect of racial and cultural differences on Alzheimer's patients' outcomes and the attitudes of their family members. The study finds that more culturally tailored resources could benefit African Americans, Latinos, and other minority groups.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care External Web Site Policy

American College of Physicians. (2010).Racial and ethnic disparities in health care, updated 2010. Retrieved from http://www.acponline.org/advocacy/where_we_stand/access/racial_disparities.pdf

The American College of Physicians released a 2010 update to its policy paper, "Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care." It calls for the healthcare system to adapt to meet the needs of an increasingly multicultural patient base. Recommendations include that healthcare professionals need to acknowledge the cultural, informational, and linguistic needs of their patients as our society increasingly becomes more racially and ethnically diverse.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Health Literacy | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance |

Irvine's Hoag Hospital works to bridge cultural barriers External Web Site Policy

Reicher, M. (2010, September 8). Irvine's Hoag Hospital works to bridge cultural barriers. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2010/sep/08/local/la-me-hoag-hospital-20100908

This article details a California hospital's efforts to incorporate culturally competent practices into its services and system. Hoag Hospital in Irvine, CA, took many steps to adapt to its patients' cultural beliefs, traditions, and languages. These preparations include creating patient rooms arranged according to the principles of feng shui, serving steamed rice for breakfast, and using gestures such as presenting documents respectfully with two hands and speaking to patients with more formality.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

At Hospitals, New Methods With a Focus on Diversity External Web Site Policy

Santos, F. (2010, September 6) At hospitals, new methods with a focus on diversity. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

This New York Times article discusses the ways that hospitals nationwide are adopting practices intended to improve care for an increasingly diverse patient population beyond language access services. Making immigrant and minority individuals feel more at ease can translate into improved health outcomes according to health providers.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Ending health disparities takes interdisciplinary approach External Web Site Policy

Lewis, C., & Stout, J. (2010). Toothache in US children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164, 1056-1063. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.206

In this message from the American Medical Association (AMA) president to all physicians, Dr. Rohack notes that an interdisciplinary approach to patient-centered care may help reduce health disparities by addressing challenges in communication such as low health literacy and medication mismanagement. He commits to helping guide the changes needed to ensure culturally competent patient care. When patients do not understand their medical conditions or what to do to control them, unnecessary healthcare costs only will increase, a situation he notes the AMA is committed to avoiding.

Keywords:    Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Future Directions for the National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports External Web Site Policy

Institute of Medicine. (2010). Future directions for the national healthcare quality and disparities reports. Retrieved from http://iom.edu/

The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released in Spring 2010 a report that discusses future directions for the AHRQ National Healthcare Quality Report (NHQR) and National Healthcare Disparities Report (NHDR). The IOM concludes that the NHQR and NHDR can be improved in ways that would make them more influential in promoting change in the healthcare system.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disease-Based | Quality Improvement | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health Disparities Calculator External Web Site Policy

Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results, National Cancer Institute. (2010). Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc) [Computer software]. Retrieved from http://seer.cancer.gov/

Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results at the National Cancer Institute has developed a Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc), which is a statistical software designed to generate multiple summary measures to evaluate and monitor health disparities.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

HHS Launches Oral Health Initiative

HHS Launches Oral Health Initiative. (2010, April 26). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/

In April 2010, Dr. Howard Koh (Assistant Secretary for Health, HHS) announced an initiative to expand oral health services, education, and research in America ("Oral Health Is Integral to Overall Health"). Through the initiative, the department is increasing support for access to oral healthcare and the delivery of services to underserved populations.

Keywords:    Policy | Government | Profession-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Language Use in the United States: 2007

U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). Language use in the United States: 2007. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2010pubs/acs-12.pdf

Language Use in the United States: 2007, a Census Bureau report, analyzes the Nation's linguistic diversity through the U.S. Census decennial data and the 2007 American Community Survey. The report finds that the percentage of speakers of non-English languages increased by 140 percent from 1980 to 2007. Of the 281 million people that were 5 years old and older in the United States in 2007, 55.4 million individuals-or 20 percent-report speaking a language other than English at home.

Keywords:    Tools | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Communication | Communication and Language Assistance |

National Healthcare Disparities Report

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. National Healthcare Disparities Report (AHRQ Publication No. 10-0004). Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr09/nhdr09.pdf

The AHRQ produced the 2009 NHDR. The NHDR tracks the healthcare system through quality measures and summarizes healthcare quality and access among various racial, ethnic, and income groups and other priority populations, such as children and older adults.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Government | Disease-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient-and Family-Centered Care External Web Site Policy

The Joint Commission (2010). Topic Library Item: Advancing effective communication, cultural competence, and patient-and family-centered care. Retrieved from http://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/6/ARoadmapforHospitalsfinalversion727.pdf

The Joint Commission proposes accreditation requirements for hospitals. These standards aim to improve communication, cultural competence, and patient-centered care. The standards will be published in the 2011 Comprehensive Accreditation Manual for Hospitals (CAMH): The Official Handbook. Compliance with the patient-centered communication standards will be included in the accreditation decision no earlier than January 2012.

Keywords:    Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Communication | Quality Improvement | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Racial/Ethnic Difference in Early-Life Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity External Web Site Policy

Taveras, E. M., Gillman, M. W., Kleinman, K., Rich-Edwards, J. W., & Rifas-Shiman, S. L. (2010). Racial/ethnic difference in early-life risk factors for childhood obesity. Pediatrics, 125(4), 686-695. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2100

A team of researchers in Boston set out to examine racial/ethnic differences in early-life risk factors for childhood obesity. The study finds that racial/ethnic differences in risk factors for obesity exist prenatally and in early childhood. Racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity may be determined by factors that operate at the earliest stages of life.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement External Web Site Policy

Institute of Medicine, Subcommittee on Standardized Collection of Race/Ethnicity Data for Healthcare Quality Improvement. (2009). Race, ethnicity, and language data: standardization for health care quality improvement. Retrieved from http://iom.edu/Reports/2009/RaceEthnicityData.aspx

In its 2009 report titled Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement, the IOM recommends that healthcare providers collect and assess comprehensive patient data on their cultural and linguistic needs. Having more precise quality metrics can assist in eliminating disparities in health and healthcare.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Quality Improvement | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Improving Patient-Provider Communication: Joint Commission Standards and Federal Laws External Web Site Policy

The Joint Commission (Producer). (2009). Improving Patient-Provider Communication: Joint Commission Standards and Federal Laws [Video]. Available from http://www.jointcommission.org/

"Improving Patient-Provider Communication" is a video created by the Joint Commission along with HHS and the Office for Civil Rights as part of their efforts to eliminate racial, ethnic, and language disparities in healthcare. The video educates healthcare providers in providing language access in healthcare organizations. Language access is critical in providing safe, quality patient care.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Informacion en espanol External Web Site Policy

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (n.d.). Informacion en espanol. Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/consumer/espanoix.htm

The AHRQ's website called Informacion en Espanol provides a variety of publications and other resources on healthcare issues, including audio and video, in Spanish. Informacion en Espanol includes a monthly online health advice column titled "Consejos de Salud Para Ti" ("Health Advice for You"), which provides evidence-based tips on preventive health, safe and appropriate use of medications, ways to get better healthcare, and more.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Communication | Communication and Language Assistance |

Study: Many Say Disparities Genetic External Web Site Policy

Study: many say disparities genetic. (2009, October 20). United Press International. Retrieved from http://www.upi.com/Health_News/2009/10/20/Study-Many-say-racial-disparities-genetic/UPI-80281256018232/

A study published in the Social Science Quarterly indicates that a majority of Americans support strategies to reduce healthcare disparities that are caused by social and economic status but believe that racial and ethnic health disparities are genetic. The authors note that the general public's belief that racial disparities have a genetic foundation is troubling because people will resist strategies aimed at eliminating health disparities.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Communication | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

CSMS issues results of health disparities survey External Web Site Policy

CSMS issues results of health disparities survey. (2009, October 28). Connecticut State Medical Society. Retrieved from http://www.csms.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2415&Itemid=222

This article discusses the results of a survey conducted by the Connecticut State Medical Society (CSMS) about physicians' views on ways to reduce disparities in healthcare, including cultural competency training. The results indicate that Connecticut physicians believe they could provide better care to patients of minority communities if they had better access to training. As a result of these findings, CSMS has committed to providing cultural competency training to physicians to help eliminate healthcare disparities in Connecticut.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Profession-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Studying State Legislation of Cultural and Linguistic Competence External Web Site Policy

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2009). Studying state legislation of cultural and linguistic competence. Retrieved from http://www.rwjf.org/

The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) funded a study by the National Center for Cultural Competence at Georgetown University that assessed State efforts to integrate cultural competence into continuing education and licensure requirements for healthcare professionals. The study reveals characteristics common between those States with legislation and States with barriers to the passage of legislation, and the study offers several strategic planning ideas.

Keywords:    Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Improving Access to Language Services in Health Care: A Look at National and State Efforts

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2009). Improving access to language services in health care: a look at national and state efforts. Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/

The issue brief explores national efforts to address language barriers for patients with limited English proficiency. It identifies challenges to delivering language services and highlights successes and implications for future policy as well as activities related to providing language services.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Population-Based | Communication | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance |

Speaking the Same Language: Medical Providers Struggle to Communicate With Immigrant Patients External Web Site Policy

Barclay, E. (2009, April 21). Speaking the same language: medical providers struggle to communicate with immigrant patients. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/04/20/AR2009042002466_pf.html

This Washington Post article discusses the effect of the Washington area's high immigration rates on its healthcare providers and the quality of care offered to patients. The author describes the medical errors and discrimination that can result from inadequate language services, and she provides doctors' and patients' points of view.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

California's Emergency Preparedness Efforts for Culturally Diverse Communities: Status, Challenges and Directions for the Future External Web Site Policy

Andrulis, D., Siddiqui, N., & Purtle, J. (2009). California's emergency preparedness efforts for culturally diverse communities: status, challenges and directions for the future. Retrieved from Drexel University Center for Health Equality and HHS Office of Minority Health website: http://www.diversitypreparedness.org/

This report conducts a systematic assessment of emergency preparedness programs and initiatives for racially and ethnically diverse communities in California, examining barriers to care as well as opportunities for improvement. While this report focuses on the State of California, it provides a methodological framework that allows for similar assessments to be conducted at national, State, and local levels.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

2008 National Healthcare Quality & Disparities Reports

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2009). National healthcare quality report, 2008 (AHRQ Publication No. 09-0001). Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/qrdr08.htm

The AHRQ released 2008's NHQR and NHDR, which present findings on quality of and access to healthcare by measuring trends in effectiveness of care, patient safety, patient centeredness, and more.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

National Pharmacy Benefit Manager to Strengthen How it Provides Language Assistance Services External Web Site Policy

National pharmacy benefit manager to strengthen how it provides language assistance services. (2009, June 15). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/

The HHS announced that Medco, a national pharmacy benefit management company, will significantly improve its language access services for limited-English-proficient individuals. The acting director of the HHS Office for Civil Rights noted that this development will combat health disparities, promote healthcare reform, and improve access to care.

Keywords:    Research | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance |

Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health External Web Site Policy

Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (2008). Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Retrieved from the World Health Organization website: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241563703_eng.pdf

This is the final report by the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which set out to examine ways to achieve health equity around the world. The report determines that the problem of health disparities can be tackled by developing strategies to influence policies and organizations that affect entire societies. The Commission has succeeded in its goal to create a global movement to promote health equity by establishing partnerships with governments and global organizations. The Commission concludes that achieving health equity within a generation is achievable.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

National Consensus Statement on Integrating Racially and Ethnically Diverse Communities into Public Health Emergency Preparedness External Web Site Policy

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Office of Minority Health and Drexel University, Center for Health Equality National Consensus Panel on Emergency Preparedness and Cultural Diversity. (2008). National consensus statement on integrating racially and ethnically diverse communities into public health emergency preparedness. Retrieved from http://www.diversitypreparedness.org/SiteData/docs/National%20Consensus%20Statement%20%26%20Guiding%20Principles%20%26%20Panel%20List%20508/695132ab58eb36a7c2f67ba98d5a72ec/National%20Consensus%20Statement%20%26%20Guiding%20Principles%20%26%20Panel%20List%20508.pdf

This statement provides a framework for integrating racially and ethnically diverse communities into emergency preparedness. It was developed by the National Consensus Panel on Emergency Preparedness and Cultural Diversity, an initiative of the Drexel University School of Public Health's Center for Health Equality and the HHS Office of Minority Health.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Health Care: A Chartbook External Web Site Policy

Mead, H., Cartwright-Smith, L., Jones, K., Ramos, C., Woods, K., & Siegel, B. (2008). Racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. health care: a chartbook. Retrieved from the Commonwealth Fund website: http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/media/Files/Publications/Chartbook/2008/Mar/Racial%20and%20Ethnic%20Disparities%20in%20U%20S%20%20Health%20Care%20%20A%20Chartbook/Mead_racialethnicdisparities_chartbook_1111%20pdf.pdf

This chartbook provides a framework through which policymakers, teachers, researchers, and practitioners may understand health disparities and formulate solutions. The chartbook presents data regarding health disparities, including their nature and etiology, and seeks to provoke thought about why disparities exist and how they can be eliminated.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Educating Physicians to Provide Culturally Competent, Patient-Centered Care External Web Site Policy

Like, R. C., Barrett, T. J., & Moon, J. (2008, Summer). Educating physicians to provide culturally competent, patient-centered care. Perspectives: A View of Family Medicine in New Jersey, 7(2), 10-20. Retrieved from http://www.njafp.org/publications/archive

This article in a New Jersey family medicine publication discusses the history of, rationale for, and effects of the legislation in New Jersey enacted in March 2005 that requires all physicians to complete cultural competency training for re-licensure and mandates the inclusion of relevant curricular content in the State's medical schools. It also outlines the development of cultural competency in legislation throughout the country on both State and national levels.

Keywords:    Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health Disparities: Barriers to a Culture of Preparedness External Web Site Policy

Honore, R. L. (2008). Health Disparities: Barriers to a Culture of Preparedness. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 14(6), S5-S7. doi: 10.1097/01.PHH.0000338381.29071.d6

This article discusses the ways that inequalities in health and healthcare present a barrier to the United States' disaster preparedness and response activities. The article sets out to show that individuals, communities, the private sector, nonprofits, and all levels of government need to work together to reduce health inequalities to improve the Nation's level of preparedness and response to a crisis.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Integrating Immigrant Families in Emergency Response, Relief and Rebuilding Efforts External Web Site Policy

Wang, T., & Yasui, L. (2008). Integrating immigrant families in emergency response, relief and rebuilding efforts. The Annie E. Casey Foundation and Grantmakers Concerned with Immigrants and Refugees. Retrieved from the Grantmakers Concerned with Immigrants and Refugees website: http://www.gcir.org/system/files/Integrating%20Immigrant%20Families%20in%20Emergency%20Response%2C%20Relief%20and%20Rebuilding%20Efforts.pdf

This report examines the disparities faced by immigrants and limited-English-proficiency communities during times of disaster. It focuses on emergency management at the local level since, oftentimes, the local government is the first on the scene during a disaster event.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Governance & Leadership | Government | Population-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Roadmap to diversity: Key legal and educational policy foundations for medical schools External Web Site Policy

Coleman, A. L., Palmer, S. R., Winnick, S. Y., & Holland & Knight, L.L.P. (2008). Roadmap to diversity: key legal and educational policy foundations for medical schools. Association of American Medical Colleges. Retrieved from http://www.cossa.org/diversity/reports/Key_Legal_and_Policy_Foundations_for_Medical_Schools.pdf

This report, published by the Association of American Medical Colleges, seeks to provide hands-on guidance to medical schools that seek to improve diversity among their students, their missions, and their policies. The report is designed to guide all medical schools in their quest for increased diversity.

Keywords:    Tools | Policy | Education & Training | Clinical & Mental Health | Governance & Leadership | Government | Profession-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Public health preparedness: Mobilizing state by state

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response. (2008). Public health preparedness: mobilizing state by state. A CDC report on the public health emergency preparedness cooperating agreement. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/

The report details the progress of States in preparedness and response issues. This report is intended to serve as a first step in detailing collaboration efforts in preparedness between local, State, and Federal governments. National and State-specific data are presented for all 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Keywords:    Tools | Research | Policy | Public Health | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health Disparities Report 2008: A County-Level Look at Health Outcomes for Minorities in Georgia

Georgia Department of Community Health Office of Health Improvement and Minority Health Advisory Council. (2008). Health disparities report 2008: a county-level look at health outcomes for minorities in Georgia. Retrieved from http://dch.georgia.gov/vgn/images/portal/cit_1210/5/49/111684019Georgia_Health_Equity_Initiative_
Health_Disparities_Report_2008.pdf

The Georgia Health Disparities Report examines minority health outcomes in each of the counties throughout the State of Georgia. The findings illustrate the need for additional collaborative efforts to truly reduce disparities in health in Georgia. One of the goals of the report is to illustrate what practices are working in certain counties so that others may adapt them to fit in their own counties.

Keywords:    Research | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Population-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Racial disparities in cancer therapy External Web Site Policy

Gross, C. P., Smith, B. D., Wolf, E., & Andersen, M. (2008). Racial disparities in cancer therapy. Cancer, 112(4), 900-908. doi: 10.1002/cncr.23228

This study, published by the American Cancer Society, analyzes whether racial disparities in cancer therapy received by Medicare beneficiaries had been reduced between the early 1990s and 2002 as a result of the increase of disparities reduction initiatives. The study shows no noticeable decrease in racial disparities between 1992 and 2002.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Population-Based | Disease-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Community variation: Disparities in health care quality between Asian and white Medicare beneficiaries External Web Site Policy

Moy, E., Greenberg, L. G., & Borsky, A. E. "Community variation: Disparities in health care quality between Asian and white Medicare beneficiaries." Health Affairs 27.2 (2008): 538-549.

This study focused on disparities in quality of health care received between Asian and white Medicare recipients. The researchers found that, overall, Asian Medicare beneficiaries were less likely than whites to receive any of the services examined.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Government | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Disease-Based | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Summary of state law requirements addressing language needs in health care External Web Site Policy

Perkins, J., & Youdelman, M. (2008). Summary of state law requirements addressing language needs in health care. Retrieved from the National Health Law Program website: http://www.healthlaw.org/images/stories/issues/nhelp.lep.state.law.chart.final.0319.pdf

The National Health Law Program published a report detailing all existing State law requirements relating to language access needs in healthcare settings. Each State's data are presented in a unique chart with citation to the legislation, a brief description, and coding that indicates the subject matter being addressed.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Patients & Consumers | Government | Communication | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Health care in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: Health care in New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina External Web Site Policy

Shartzer, A. (Author), & kaiserEDU.org (Producer). (2008). Health care in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: Health care in New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina [Video tutorial]. Retrieved from http://www.kaiseredu.org/tutorials/katrina/player.html

This is a narrated tutorial from the Kaiser Family Foundation that discusses the state of healthcare in New Orleans both before Hurricane Katrina and following it. Much of the information presented discusses the effect that Katrina had on low income individuals, many of whom are minorities.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Population-Based | Communication | Quality Improvement | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Ready or not? Protecting the public's health from diseases, disasters, and bioterrorism, 2010 External Web Site Policy

Trust for America's Health, & The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2010). Ready or not 2010: protecting the public's health from diseases, disasters, and bioterrorism. Retrieved from the Trust for America's Health website: http://www.healthyamericans.org/assets/files/TFAH2010ReadyorNot%20FINAL.pdf

Since 2003, Trust for America's Health has been measuring the Nation's emergency health preparedness efforts to evaluate what is being done at the Federal, State, and local levels. This eighth annual Ready or Not? report regarding the United States' level of preparedness for disasters, bioterrorism threats, and disease epidemics indicates that, while important progress has been made in the Nation's public health preparedness, efforts need to continue, and much remains to be done.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Clinical & Mental Health | Public Health | Government | Profession-Based | Disparities | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

The medical tongue: U.S. laws and policies on language access. External Web Site Policy

Youdelman, M. (2008). The medical tongue: U.S. laws and policies on language access. Health Affairs, 27(2), 424-433. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.27.2.424

Despite many Federal- and State-level laws regarding language access services, language barriers in healthcare are still prevalent for many individuals with limited English proficiency. The existing laws are not always sufficiently implemented or enforced. This article examines the current legislation and makes suggestions for improving language access for limited-English-proficiency individuals through a variety of lenses, including implementation and enforcement, funding, education, interpreters and translators, and accountability.

Keywords:    Research | Policy | Public Health | Government | Communication | Disparities | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

2010 National Healthcare Disparities Report

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2011). 2010 National healthcare disparity report (AHRQ Publication No. 11-0005). Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr10/nhdr10.pdf

The HHS AHRQ released 2011's NHDR, which summarizes healthcare quality and access among various racial, ethnic, and income groups and other priority populations, such as residents of rural areas and people with disabilities.

Keywords:    Research | Government | Population-Based | Disparities |

CDC Health Disparities and Inequities Report

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). CDC health disparities and inequities report-United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 60, 1-113. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/other/su6001.pdf

This report from the HHS CDC is the agency's first in a series of assessments of the Nations' health disparities and inequities. The report states that "Persistent health disparities in our country are unacceptable and correctable."

Keywords:    Research | Government | Disparities |

Guidance for Integrating Culturally Diverse Communities into Planning for and Responding to Emergencies: A Toolkit External Web Site Policy

Andrulis, D. P., Siddiqui, N. J., & Purtle, J. (2011). Guidance for integrating culturally diverse communities into planning for and responding to emergencies: a toolkit. Retrieved from the National Resource Center on Advancing Emergency Preparedness for Culturally Diverse Communities website: http://www.texashealthinstitute.org/files/OMHDiversityPreparednessToolkit.pdf

This toolkit from the Office of Minority Health assists agencies in working with diverse communities to address a broader set of priorities to improve health and quality of life that are central to effective emergency event strategies and actions. It offers recommendations, resources, and practical strategies for engaging and integrating culturally diverse communities across emergency planning and response actions.

Keywords:    Tools | Government | Public Health | Profession-Based | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability |

Measuring the Gaps: Collecting Data to Drive Improvements in Health Care Disparities External Web Site Policy

Russell, L. (2010). Measuring the Gaps: Collecting Data to Drive Improvements in Health Care Disparities. Retrieved from the Center for American Progress website: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2010/12/pdf/measuringgaps.pdf

This article discusses the Affordable Care Act requirements for the collection and analysis of healthcare disparities data, which will lay the foundation for developing targeted interventions to improve quality of care for racial and ethnic minorities.

Keywords:    Policy | Disparities | Government | Governance & Leadership | Quality Improvement |

Obama Official: Affordable Care Act Closes Racial Disparities External Web Site Policy

Chideya, F. (Host). (2011, March 23) Obama official: affordable care act closes racial disparities. In Martin, M. (Host), Tell Me More (Audio podcast), National Public Radio. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/

In this interview, Assistant Secretary for Minority Health Dr. Garth Graham discusses the impact of the Affordable Care Act on minority communities. He discusses several aspects of the law that will reduce health disparities among racial and ethnic minorities.

Keywords:    Policy | Disparities | Government | Quality Improvement |

Multicultural HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis Service External Web Site Policy

A public site where people can access multilingual information on HIV and Hepatitis C.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Clinical & Mental Health | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disease-Based | Disparities | Education & Training | Government | Health Literacy | Communication and Language Assistance | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Patients & Consumers | Policy | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Public Health | Quality Improvement | Research | Tools |

Native American Spirituality External Web Site Policy

An information Guide for Health Care providers, hospital staff and administrators, chaplains, school administrators, funeral directors and others regarding ceremonies, rights and obligations.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance & Leadership | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Education & Training | Government | Health Literacy | Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Patients & Consumers | Policy | Quality Improvement |

Reexamining LGBT Healthcare External Web Site Policy

Out of the box LGBT cultural competence training, including 10-minute original video, slides and a manual

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Governance & Leadership | Clinical & Mental Health | Communication | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Disease-Based | Disparities | Education & Training | Government | Patients & Consumers | Population-Based | Profession-Based | Public Health |

CDC Diabetes website

CDC's Division of Diabetes Translation translates diabetes research into daily practice to understand the impact of the disease, influence health outcomes, and improve access to quality health care. Resources are available in Spanish as well.

*This resource was submitted by a Think Cultural Health visitor using our "Submit a Resource" feature.

Keywords:    Disease-Based | Education & Training | Government | Health Literacy | Patients & Consumers | Public Health | Research |

Consumer bill of rights and responsibilities: Report to the President of the United States

Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry. (1997). Consumer bill of rights and responsibilities: Report to the President of the United States. Retrieved from http://www.opm.gov/insure/archive/health/cbrr.htm

The commission was appointed to advise President Bill Clinton and to recommend measures necessary to ensure quality of care and to protect consumers and workers in the health care system. The document details consumer rights in relation to information disclosure, choice of providers and plans, access to emergency services, participation in treatment decisions, respect and nondiscrimination, confidentiality of health information, and complaints and appeals. A final chapter deals with consumer responsibilities. An executive summary and discussions of goals and guiding principles are included.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Government | Patients & Consumers |

Navigating the US health care system: A video guide for immigrant and diverse patient populations External Web Site Policy

Bobal, A. M., Brown, H. L., Hartman, T. L., Magee, M., & Schmidt, C. M. (2007). Navigating the US health care system: A video guide for immigrant and diverse patient populations. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 95(3), 286-289. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.95.3.286

Librarians at the McGoogan Library of Medicine at the University of Nebraska created and marketed a video to help recent immigrants navigate the American health care system. The video ("Following the Clues: A Visit to the Doctor and Library") targeted children, whom, it was believed, would share the information with their parents and to whom very basic information could be addressed without apparent condescension. The article describes the considerations and processes that went into the making of the video on a limited budget.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Government | Patients & Consumers | Education & Training |

Future directions for the national healthcare quality and disparities reports External Web Site Policy

Institute of Medicine, Committee on Future Directions for the National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports. (2010). Future directions for the national healthcare quality and disparities reports. Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/research/iomqrdrreport/iomqrdrreport.pdf

Responding to findings that geographic, racial, and socio-economic disparities in health care often persist even when overall quality of care improves, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality asked the Institute of Medicine for guidance in improving the National Healthcare Quality Reports and the National Healthcare Disparities reports in ways that would make them more influential in promoting desired changes. The IOM recommended a set of eight priority areas for national health care improvement. These areas include access and patient and family engagement.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Quality Improvement | Government |

Making CLAS happen: Six areas for action External Web Site Policy

Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Office of Health Equity. (2009). Making CLAS happen: Six areas for action. Retrieved from http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/provider/guidelines-resources/services-planning/workforce-development/health-equity/clas/making-clas-happen.html

The Massachusetts Department of Public Health identified challenges faced by public health professionals serving minority populations and developed this guide to the implementation of CLAS Standards throughout all aspects of an organization. The "six areas for action" are to (1) foster cultural competence, (2) build community partnerships, (3) collect and share diversity data, (4) benchmark, (5) reflect and respect diversity, and (6) ensure language access. Each chapter includes tools, resource lists, and case studies.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Government | Public Health |

National stakeholder strategy for achieving health equity

National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities. (2011). National stakeholder strategy for achieving health equity. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health website: http://www.minorityhealth.hhs.gov/npa/templates/content.aspx?lvl=1&lvlid=33&ID=286

This document offers a plan for eliminating health disparities through cooperative and strategic action. It is part of an effort to provide "visible and accountable federal leadership while also promoting collaborations among communities, states, tribes, the private sector and other stakeholders to more effectively reduce health disparities." It is an effort, also, to establish "a common set of goals and objectives" for the public and private sector organizations.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Government | Public Health |

Quality improvement plan template

New York State Office of Mental Health Office of Quality Management. (2011). Quality improvement plan template. Retrieved from http://omh.ny.gov/omhweb/cqi/plan_template.html

The template covers such areas as leadership and organization, goals and objectives, performance measurement, identification of quality improvement initiatives, and evaluation. An appendix of quality improvement tools is included.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Quality Improvement | Government | Governance & Leadership | Tools |

Reflections on the CLAS Standards: Best practices, innovations and horizons

Putsch, R., SenGupta, I., Sampson, A., & Tervalon, M. (2003). Reflections on the CLAS Standards: Best practices, innovations and horizons. Retrieved from The Cross Cultural Health Care Program website: http://www.xculture.org/files/CLAS.Standards.Report.pdf.pdf

On the basis of a literature review, interviews, and on-site visits, a number of best practices were identified in the implementation of the CLAS Standards. Among the findings are that best-practicing organizations tailor their programs and services to the needs of the communities and populations they serve; they engage in a combination of health, community, and social services; policies fostering culturally and linguistically appropriate services are woven into the organization at all levels; and meaningful relationships with the community are seen as critical to achieving equity. Five organizations are profiled in detail.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Government | Public Health | Research |

CLAS A-Z: A practical guide for implementing the National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) in health care External Web Site Policy

Salimbene, S. (2001). CLAS A-Z: A practical guide for implementing the National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) in health care. Retrieved from the Office of Minority Health website: http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/assets/pdf/checked/CLAS_a2z.pdf

This step-by-step guide includes a minimum of discursive text, being largely in the form of downloadable checklists, forms, and syllabi that can be adapted to an organization's particular needs.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Government | Public Health | Tools |

Cultural responsiveness framework: Guidelines for Victorian health services External Web Site Policy

State Government of Victoria, Australia, Department of Health, Rural and Regional Health and Aged Care Services. (2009). Cultural responsiveness framework: Guidelines for Victorian health services. Retrieved from http://www.health.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/381068/cultural_responsiveness.pdf

The framework is based on four key domains of quality and safety - organizational effectiveness, risk management, consumer participation, and an effective workforce - and six standards for cultural responsiveness. The latter include such items as an organizationwide approach; the use of accredited interpreters; consideration of cultural practices concerning diet, spirituality, and family; and professional development opportunities for staff.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Quality Improvement | Government | Tools |

2004 U.S. Census test: Language identification flashcard External Web Site Policy

U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau. (2004). 2004 U.S. Census test: Language identification flashcard. Retrieved from http://www.lep.gov/ISpeakCards2004.pdf

A sentence (translating as "Mark this box if you read or speak ...") is repeated in 38 written languages, in scripts varying appropriately with the language.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Tools | Communication and Language Assistance | Government |

A toolkit for serving diverse communities

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Aging. (2010). A toolkit for serving diverse communities. Retrieved from http://www.aoa.gov/AOARoot/AoA_Programs/Tools_Resources/DOCS/AoA_DiversityToolkit_Full.pdf

This toolkit, designed for the use of the Aging Services Network and its partners, is built around a four-step process: organizational, staff, and self-assessments; knowledge of the community and partnership formation; design and delivery, including marketing, of services; and program evaluation.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Government | Tools |

Developing quality of care measures for people with disabilities: Summary of expert meeting

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2010). Developing quality of care measures for people with disabilities: Summary of expert meeting (AHRQ Publication No. 10-0103). Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/populations/devqmdis/devqmdis.pdf

This is the summary of a one-day meeting held to develop priorities to guide research on the measurement of quality of care for persons with disabilities. The resulting research agenda is included in this document.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Quality Improvement | Government |

Health literacy universal precautions toolkit

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2010). Health literacy universal precautions toolkit (AHRQ Publication No. 10-0046-EF). Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/literacy/healthliteracytoolkit.pdf

This toolkit was designed to be used by staff at all levels of a primary care practice. It contains 20 tools, each two to five pages long, to improve spoken and written communication and improve patient self-management. A quick-start guide is provided. Background information on health literacy is included. Links to videos are available. An appendix offers forms, PowerPoint presentations, worksheets, and posters.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Communication and Language Assistance | Health Literacy | Government | Tools |

2010 National Healthcare Disparities Report

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2011). 2010 national healthcare disparities report (AHRQ Publication No. 11-0005). Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr10/nhdr10.pdf

The report includes discussions of the effectiveness of care (organized according to eight clinical areas), patient safety, timeliness of care, patient centeredness, care coordination, efficiency, health system infrastructure, access, and priority populations. A highlights section summarizes many of the findings, such as: health care quality and access are found to be suboptimal for minority and low-income groups - quality is improving, access and disparities are not; cancer screening and diabetes management are in particular need of attention; palliative and end-of-life care and patient and family engagement are improving - patient safety is not.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Government | Research |

CAHPS cultural competence item set

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2011). CAHPS cultural competence item set. Retrieved from https://www.cahps.ahrq.gov/surveys-guidance/item-sets/cultural-competence.aspx

The Cultural Competence Item Set is a set of supplemental items for the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems' Clinician and Group Survey. It was "designed to capture the patient's perspective on the cultural competence of health care providers." It touches on such topics as patient-provider communication, complementary and alternative medicine, discrimination, level of trust, politeness, truth telling, linguistic competency and access to language services, and shared decision-making.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Government | Patients & Consumers | Tools |

Ensuring that patient centered medical homes effectively serve patients with complex needs

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2011). Ensuring that patient centered medical homes effectively serve patients with complex needs (AHRQ Publication No. 11-0109). Retrieved from http://pcmh.ahrq.gov/portal/server.pt/community/pcmh__home/1483/pcmh_tools___resources_patient-centered_v2

This brief paper outlines programmatic and policy changes that may enable practices implementing a patient-centered medical home model to ensure a high quality of care even to those patients with the most complex needs. The information provided may be of particular use in small practices.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Government | Policy |

Coordinating care for adults with complex care needs in the patient-centered medical home: Challenges and solutions

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2012). Coordinating care for adults with complex care needs in the patient-centered medical home: Challenges and solutions (AHRQ Publication No. 12-0010). Retrieved from http://pcmh.ahrq.gov/portal/server.pt/community/pcmh__home/1483/pcmh_tools___resources_coordinated_care_v2

This white paper offers information that may be useful to primary care practices that have patients with complex needs. Chapter topics include a discussion of how the patient-centered medical home could improve the care of such patients, barriers, essential elements of care coordination, and strategies.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Quality Improvement | Government |

Intellectual disability fact sheet

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.) Intellectual disability fact sheet. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/pdf/parents_pdfs/IntellectualDisability.pdf

This fact sheet, written in English and Spanish, gives a brief, clear, and easy-to-understand description of the signs and possible causes of intellectual disability and encourages parents to seek early treatment if they suspect a child may be experiencing difficulties such as the ones described.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Government |

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/lgbthealth

This CDC Web page provides links to information on and resources for some of the health issues and inequities affecting LGBT communities. Information is also available for health care providers, public health professionals, and students.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Population-Based | Government | Public Health |

Guidance to federal financial assistance recipients regarding Title VI and the prohibition against national origin discrimination affecting limited English proficient persons: Summary

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Civil Rights. (n.d.). Guidance to federal financial assistance recipients regarding Title VI and the prohibition against national origin discrimination affecting limited English proficient persons: Summary. Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/civilrights/resources/laws/summaryguidance.html

This summary of the full 2003 guidance briefly discusses the use of patients' family members and friends as interpreters, the translation of vital documents, interpreter and translator competence, the elements of an effective language assistance plan, and the factors used to determine the obligation under Title VI of recipients of federal funding to ensure meaningful access to programs for persons with limited English proficiency. It is noted that what constitute reasonable steps to be required of large providers "may not be reasonable where small providers are concerned."

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Communication and Language Assistance | Government | Policy |

National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health. (n.d.). National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities. Retrieved from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/npa

The Office of Minority Health established the National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities as a community-driven approach to the achievement of health equity. Partners may be individuals and organizations. The NPA's primary goal is to "foster community involvement and broad-based partnerships at all levels and among a range of sectors, particularly those at the front-line of fighting health disparities."

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Government |

Outreach activities and resources: Multi-cultural resources for health information

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Specialized Information Services. (2012). Outreach activities and resources: Multi-cultural resources for health information. Retrieved from http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/outreach/multicultural.html

This resource center gives access to approximately a hundred other sites in such areas as cultural competency; health literacy; limited English proficiency; interpreting; online translation tools; resources in languages other than English; law, policy, and standards; multicultural research; and refugee health.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Health Literacy | Government |

HHS action plan to reduce racial and ethnic disparities: A nation free of disparities in health and health care

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). HHS action plan to reduce racial and ethnic disparities: A nation free of disparities in health and health care. Retrieved from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/npa/files/Plans/HHS/HHS_Plan_complete.pdf

In November 2010, Secretary Kathleen Sebelius charged the Department of Health and Human Services with the development of an action plan to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities. The plan is operational across all agencies and institutes within the department. This document outlining the action plan is organized according to five overarching goals (to be accomplished by 2015), with strategies and actions outlined for each.

Keywords:    Provide effective, equitable, understandable, and respectful quality care and services | Disparities | Government | Public Health |

Training and continuing education online: Health literacy for public health professionals

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Training and continuing education online: Health literacy for public health professionals (web-based) [Online training course summary]. Retrieved from http://www2a.cdc.gov/tceonline/registration/detailpage.asp?res_id=2074

This online course is intended to educate public health professionals and students on the importance of health literacy and the role they play in providing health information and promoting health literacy in the community. Continuing education credit is available.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Health Literacy | Government | Public Health |

Unified health communication 101

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration. (n.d.). Unified health communication 101. Retrieved from http://www.hrsa.gov/publichealth/healthliteracy/index.html

This is a free five-module online course that allows viewers to proceed at their own pace. Participants will learn to "implement patient-centered communication practices that demonstrate cultural competency and appropriately address patients with limited health literacy" and limited English proficiency. Continuing education credits are available.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Health Literacy | Government |

A patient-centered guide to implementing language access services in healthcare organizations

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health. (2005). A patient-centered guide to implementing language access services in healthcare organizations. Retrieved from https://hclsig.thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/

This guide provides practical suggestions on how health care organizations and providers can implement language access services. It is intended to meet the needs of clinics, community health centers, hospitals, health maintenance organizations, mental health institutions, dental offices, long-term care facilities, substance abuse treatment centers, and individual physicians' offices. Information is offered on assessing patients' language needs, assessing organizational capabilities, and planning and implementing language services. "Resource units" address issues such as interpretation services, written materials and signage, and community involvement.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Communication and Language Assistance | Government |

A physician's practical guide to culturally competent care

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health. (n.d.). A physician's practical guide to culturally competent care. Retrieved from https://cccm.thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/

This e-learning program uses individual cases to illustrate areas of miscommunication and cultural misunderstanding. Participants will learn how to address language and cultural barriers, how to work with interpreters, how to practice patient-centered care, how to understand their patients' explanatory models, and how to establish community partnerships. Continuing education credit is available.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Profession-Based | Government |

Cultural competency curriculum for disaster preparedness and crisis response

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health. (n.d.). Cultural competency curriculum for disaster preparedness and crisis response. Retrieved from https://cccdpcr.thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/

This set of courses for emergency medical personnel and disaster relief workers of all types was designed address disparities related to race and culture during disasters. Topics covered include working with interpreters, locating translated materials, negotiating cultural differences, and incorporating the National CLAS Standards into organizational policy. Continuing education credit is available.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Profession-Based | Government |

Culturally competent nursing care: A cornerstone of caring

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health. (n.d.). Culturally competent nursing care: A cornerstone of caring. Retrieved from https://ccnm.thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/

Nurses spend more time in direct patient care than other health professionals. This training, designed to enhance nurses' abilities to provided culturally appropriate care, has been approved for nine contact hours of continuing education credit.

Keywords:    Governance, Leadership, and Workforce | Profession-Based | Government |

Title VI for healthcare and healthcare-related organizations External Web Site Policy

Adelson, B. L., & Bromberg & Associates, LLC. (2010). Title VI for healthcare and healthcare-related organizations [Online training module]. Hamtramck, MI: Bromberg Translation Services.

This online training module discusses the implications of Title VI for health care organizations receiving federal funding.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Government | Education & Training |

The toolkit for making written material clear and effective: Overview

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2011). The toolkit for making written material clear and effective: Overview. Retrieved from https://www.cms.gov/WrittenMaterialsToolkit/

This toolkit offers guidelines, using a reader-centered approach, to the writing and design of brochures, pamphlets, booklets, flyers, fact sheets, posters, application forms, comparison charts, instruction sheets, questionnaires, and websites. Contents include readability formulas, a before-and-after example of a brochure with discussion of the differences, and guidelines for culturally appropriate translation.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Government | Tools |

The legal framework for language access in healthcare settings: Title VI and beyond

Chen, A. H., Youdelman, M. K., & Brooks, J. (2007). The legal framework for language access in healthcare settings: Title VI and beyond. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(Supplement 2), 362-367. doi:10.1007/s11606-007-0366-2

The authors discuss federal mandates and offer an overview of state laws and recent legal decisions in the field of language rights in health care. The article also includes the authors' analysis of policy initiatives that could improve the health care of patients with limited proficiency in English.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Government | Policy |

Best practice recommendations for hospital-based interpreter services External Web Site Policy

Commonwealth of Massachusetts Executive Office of Health and Human Services, Massachusetts Department of Public Health. (2004). Best practice recommendations for hospital-based interpreter services. Retrieved from http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/docs/dph/health-equity/best-practices.pdf

The Massachusetts Department of Public Health, in consultation with a broad array of organizations within the state, has sought to identify the components of an optimal interpreter services program for hospitals. Some characteristics were found to be common to all successful programs: that they are structured rather than ad hoc, with written policies and procedures; include regular and systematic review of community language needs and facility resources; have specific training and competency protocols for interpreters and providers; include a means of monitoring and evaluation; and offer a delivery system appropriate to the needs of those served.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Government | Governance & Leadership | Public Health |

Limited English proficiency: A federal interagency website

Limited English proficiency: A federal interagency website. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.lep.gov

This site exists to promote understanding of the importance of language access to all federal and federally assisted programs and to support "a fair, reasoned and consistent" implementation of Executive Order 13166 and related regulations. The website is also a clearinghouse, offering access to an extensive array of tools and information relating to language access.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Government |

CAHPS item set for addressing health literacy

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2011). CAHPS item set for addressing health literacy. Retrieved from https://www.cahps.ahrq.gov/Surveys-Guidance/Item-Sets/Health-Literacy.aspx

The principal goal of this Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems item set "is to measure, from the patients' perspectives, how well health information is communicated to them by health professionals." This item set contains 29 supplemental items to be used with the CAHPS Clinician and Group Survey and covers the following topic areas: (1) communication with doctors, (2) communication about health problems and concerns, (3) communication about medicines, (4) communication about tests, (5) communication about forms, and (6) disease self-management.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Health Literacy | Government | Patients & Consumers |

Health literacy online: A guide to writing and designing easy-to-use health web sites

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2010). Health literacy online: A guide to writing and designing easy-to-use health web sites. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov/healthliteracyonline

This guide, "written for Web designers, content specialists, and other public health communication professionals," offers guidance on creating websites that are easy to use for people with limited literacy skills and limited Internet experience, with content that is engaging and on which readers can act. The guide is structured according to six strategies: (1) learn about the users and their goals, (2) write actionable content, (3) display content clearly, (4) organize content to simplify navigation, (5) engage users with interactive content, and (6) evaluate and revise the site. Examples of writing and design are included.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Health Literacy | Government | Public Health |

National action plan to improve health literacy

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2010). National action plan to improve health literacy. Retrieved from http://health.gov/communication/HLActionPlan/

The plan is based on the principles that everyone has the right to health information and that health services should be delivered in ways that are understandable. Seven goals and strategies to achieve them are outlined. These goals include promoting changes in the health care system that improve health information, communication, informed decision-making, and access to health services; supporting and expanding local efforts to provide adult education, English language instruction, and culturally and linguistically appropriate health information services in the community; increasing basic research and the development, implementation, and evaluation of practices and interventions to improve health literacy; and increasing the dissemination and use of evidence-based health literacy practices and interventions.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Health Literacy | Government | Public Health |

Federal agency LEP guidance & language access plans

U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division. (n.d.). Federal agency LEP guidance & language access plans. Retrieved from http://www.lep.gov/guidance/guidance_index.html

Each federal agency that provides financial assistance must develop guidance for its recipients on their obligation to provide meaningful access to persons having limited proficiency in English. This website offers links to such guidance from most departments and many agencies of the U.S. government.

Keywords:    Communication and Language Assistance | Government |

Strategies for improving minority healthcare quality

This outdated information has been archived and is available for reference purposes only. To access the archived document, please go to: http://archive.ahrq.gov/clinic/epcarch.htm. Beach, M. C., Cooper, L. A., Robinson, K. A., Price, E. G., Gary, T. L., Jenckes, M. W., ... Powe, N. R. (2004). Strategies for improving minority healthcare quality (Publication No. 04-E008-02). Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality website: http://www.ahrq.gov/downloads/pub/evidence/pdf/minqual/minqual.pdf

The authors analyzed articles, found during an extensive literature search, on initiatives intended to improve minority health care and targeting health care providers or organizations. Most of the studies targeted physicians and most concerned aspects of prevention. There seems to be excellent evidence that reminder systems improve care and fair evidence that screening services directed to minority patients can improve care. There is excellent evidence that educational interventions targeting providers improve provider knowledge and patient satisfaction, but evidence of their effects on health outcome was only fair due to lack of consistency in methodology and measurement among the original studies.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Government | Public Health |

Culturally-appropriate dispute resolution techniques and the formal judicial system in Hawaii. A report to the State Justice Institute External Web Site Policy

Dator, J. (1991). Culturally-appropriate dispute resolution techniques and the formal judicial system in Hawaii. A report to the State Justice Institute. Retrieved from http://www.futures.hawaii.edu/publications/courts/CultAppropAD1991.pdf

The author reviews a project undertaken by the State Justice Institute and the Hawaii Center for Futures Studies on alternative dispute resolution techniques in the Pacific region and legal precedents for dispute-resolution autonomy for certain groups. The recommendation is made to the chief justice of the Hawaii Supreme Court to appoint a committee to advise him on "appropriate action to be taken in order to incorporate culturally appropriate dispute resolution techniques into the Hawaii Judicial system." The author makes several suggestions as to what the focus of the committee should be.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Policy | Government |

Guide for developing a community-based patient safety advisory council

Leonhardt, K., Bonin, D., & Pagel, P. (2008). Guide for developing a community-based patient safety advisory council (AHRQ Publication No. 08-0048). Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/advisorycouncil/advisorycouncil.pdf

This guide offers a 10-step approach to the creation of a patient safety advisory council. The intended audience is assumed to have a basic knowledge of patient safety and some awareness of logistics and meeting planning but without prior experience of including consumers and a wide array of perspectives in the discussions.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Government | Patients & Consumers | Public Health |

American Factfinder

U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). American factfinder. Retrieved from http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml

Search for census information by topic (such as age, income, or year), race or ethnic group, occupation, or geographic area. Only deidentified information (that is, information that would not enable the identification of individual persons, households, or businesses) is available.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Government | Tools |

CAHPS: Surveys and tools to advance patient-centered care

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2011). CAHPS: Surveys and tools to advance patient-centered care. Retrieved from http://www.cahps.ahrq.gov

This website for the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems program offers standardized patient questionnaires on health plans, clinicians and groups, surgical care, dental plans, hospitals, nursing homes, home health care, and in-center hemodialysis. There is a survey that asks American Indians about their health care experiences. There are supplemental item sets for children with chronic conditions, people with mobility impairments, and providers of cultural competence, health literacy, and information technology.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Health Literacy | Government | Patients & Consumers |

National Healthcare Quality & Disparities Reports: NHQRDRNet

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (n.d.). National Healthcare Quality & Disparities Reports: NHQRDRNet. Retrieved from http://nhqrnet.ahrq.gov/nhqrdr/jsp/nhqrdr.jsp#snhere#snhere

NHQRDRNet is an online query system that allows access to data from the National Healthcare Quality Report and the National Healthcare Disparities Report. Information is available on the effectiveness of care in many areas, on patient safety, care coordination, access to care, various diseases and conditions, and types of care and care settings.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Disparities | Quality Improvement | Government |

Cultural competence works: Using cultural competence to improve the quality of health care for diverse populations and add value to managed care arrangements

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration. (2001). Cultural competence works: Using cultural competence to improve the quality of health care for diverse populations and add value to managed care arrangements. Retrieved from ftp://ftp.hrsa.gov/financeMC/cultural-competence.pdf

Cultural Competence Works was a nationwide competition for outstanding HRSA-funded programs that was intended to highlight the practices they employed to provide culturally competent care. The most successful programs tended to define culture broadly, value their clients' beliefs, recognize that effective interpretation requires more than a shared language, create and sustain a "learning loop" between providers and the community, engage the community to define needs, collaborate with other local agencies, establish specific hiring qualifications and training requirements, and institutionalize cultural competence at all levels of the organization.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Quality Improvement | Government |

Final data collection standards for race, ethnicity, primary language, sex, and disability status required by Section 4302 of the Affordable Care Act

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health. (2011). Final data collection standards for race, ethnicity, primary language, sex, and disability status required by Section 4302 of the Affordable Care Act. Retrieved from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/browse.aspx?lvl=2&lvlid=208

The Department of Health and Human Services published the final version of its standards for data collection on race, ethnicity, sex, primary language, and disability status on October 31, 2011. The standards apply to health surveys sponsored by HHS, which will now implement these data standards in all surveys.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Government | Tools |

Improving data for the LGBT community

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health. (2011). Improving data for the LGBT community. Retrieved from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/content.aspx?lvl=2&lvlid=209&id=9004

The Department of Health and Human Services will begin integrating sexual orientation and gender identity data into its national surveys. The HHS Data Council and the National Center for Health Statistics are working now on ways to reduce bias in the estimates. HHS surveys have not before collected any data on transgender status. If field tests are successful, data on sexual orientation will be incorporated into National Health Interview Survey data collection in 2013.

Keywords:    Engagement, Continuous Improvement, and Accountability | Population-Based | Government |